Journal articles: 'Ng Wah College Secondary. English language English language English language Reading' – Grafiati (2024)

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Relevant bibliographies by topics / Ng Wah College Secondary. English language English language English language Reading / Journal articles

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Author: Grafiati

Published: 4 June 2021

Last updated: 1 February 2022

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1

Shih, Ying-Chun, and Barry Lee Reynolds. "Exploring strong and weak EFL readers’ strategy use after a reading strategy and extensive reading instructional intervention." Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada/Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics 31, no.1 (August27, 2018): 345–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/resla.16032.shi.

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Abstract After 16 weeks of extensive reading and reading strategy instruction in an English as a Foreign Language class (n = 52) at a junior college in Taiwan, three weak and three strong second language readers were recruited to investigate reading strategy use. Strategies were inferred from verbal reports gained through a think aloud methodology as participants read a text equivalent to those encountered during regular classroom instruction. Results indicated strong readers used more global strategies than weak readers. Strong readers had a more diverse reading strategy repertoire while weak readers tended to lean towards the use of a single strategy. In addition, strong readers tended to combine strategies. These and other results are discussed in terms of the translation-based reading instruction currently dominating Taiwanese secondary school classrooms. Suggestions are also provided on how classroom English teachers should implement reading strategy training in the English language classroom.

2

Kochiyama, Arisa. "USING PICTURE BOOKS TO ENHANCE MOTIVATION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING OF REMEDIAL EFL LEARNERS." Indonesian EFL Journal 1, no.1 (September12, 2017): 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.25134/ieflj.v1i1.608.

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According to studies done by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, many secondary schools across the nation aren�t adequately preparing students to excel at college. Universities are stepping in to fill the gap by offering remedial college courses in subjects such as Japanese and English. The purpose of the present study is to explore how an EFL class for college freshmen can help the students develop the critical thinking skills as well as language skills such as pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar necessary to read at the college level.Picture books are often overlooked by adult ESL/EFL instructors as many of them feel uncomfortable reading books designed for children. However, if chosen with consideration for the interests of the students and used in ways that are appropriate for adult learners, picture books can provide valuable opportunities of language-rich experiences and interactions. In fact a number of studies in Western cultures have shown that picture books provide a wealth of possibilities for teaching English topics as well as various vocabulary sets such as family, food, clothes, and so on. They can also motivate learners to read more and learn more as the students are more likely to find reading a manageable challenge.Given these functions of picture books, the main objectives of the study are (1) to discuss the merits of using picture books in remedial English classes from the viewpoint of English language learning, (2) to investigate the effect of using picture books on the learners� motivation and emotional development, and (3) to give a report about the students� reactions towards an adoption of a picture book in an EFL class.Keywords: intercultural communication, English as a second language, EFL classroom, language and gender, children�s literature in EFL learning

3

Et al., Muhammad Khalid Mehmood Sajid. "EFFECTIVENESS OF READING ALOUD STRATEGIES ON LOW PROFICIENCY PAKISTANI COLLEGE LEVEL FEMALE STUDENTS OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FROM HUMANITIES GROUP AT HIGHER SECONDARY SYSTEM: A TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION." INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN INDUSTRY 9, no.1 (March13, 2021): 851–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.17762/itii.v9i1.210.

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Reading is an important part of learning. No one can deny its importance. The importance of reading aloud strategies has increased. Reading aloud strategies are very important, especially for low proficiency students and for those who use the English language as a second language. It is vital for low proficiency students at the national and international levels. This study examines the effectiveness of the read-aloud strategies on low proficiency students at the secondary school level in Multan city. The study was conducted at the higher secondary school of Multan city in Pakistan; data were collected from students of the first year through a questionnaire, and pre-test post-test instruments were also used. The study is based on an experimental research design, and the target sample was 20 students of humanities group and five teachers from the English department. The study found that the reading aloud strategies help low proficiency students at the college level in Pakistan.

4

Schmidt, Mihaela. "The State Matura exam in Croatia: How argumentative essay as an integral part of the Matura Higher English exam improved students’ foreign language literacy." Journal of English Language and Literature 9, no.1 (February28, 2018): 736–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.17722/jell.v9i1.347.

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The purpose of this article is to enrich the EFL teacher’s understanding of the development of educational standards in Croatia with the special focus on Secondary School Leaving Examination the so called State Matura. The external examinations are a widespread phenomenon which has also influenced Croatian educational system. This new type of assessment, which has been used for over a decade now has positively influenced the language competence of the students especially in reading and writing. Henceforth the argumentative essay, which is a crucial part of the English Matura exam at the higher level, has in great part contributed to such positive changes which were also documentd in the Reports issued by the Croatian Center for External Evaluation of Education, whose role is to govern the whole examination process and in the end to subject the tests and its items to psychometric analyses. Statistical data, rating scales and a sample essay included in this article are of great help in other to demonstrate the positive role the argumentative essay plays at the Matura exam and later at a university level .A study which also speaks in favour of this fact is the study conducted by R.M.Helms, in the USA (2008) which stresses the importance of the writing component of the SAT tests as predictors of college grades. Bearing in mind everything mentioned so far a lot of challenges still lie ahed, but the Croatian educational system will for sure yield even more promising results in the future.

5

Schouten-van Parreren, Carolien, Heleen de Hondt, Irma van der Neut, Hans de Haan, and Jos Beishuizen. "Computerondersteuning Bij Voorspellend Lezen." Computer-ondersteund talenonderwijs 33 (January1, 1989): 95–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/ttwia.33.13par.

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In Model Schools Project West-Netherlands the Free University of Amsterdam (Department of Cognitive Psychology) and the State University of Utrecht (Researchgroup on Mathematics Education and Educational Computer Centre) study the way the computer can be used as an aid in secondary education. In the model school (Cals College Nieuwegein) five departments (Dutch Language, Mathematics, Foreign Languages, Geography, Home Economics) are developing and trying series of experimental lessons in which the computer is used as an aid to students and teachers. Existing (educational) software is elaborated with worksheets and teacher guidelines, aimed at an optimal integration of the software into the curriculum. During the schoolyear 1987/1988 the English Language teacher, supported by researcher and subject matter experts, has given a series of lessons on "reading and prediction", viz. the use of function words in a text. In four lessons the students worked on (a) choosing an appropriate consecutive phrase given a main phrase with function word (supported by the program "Sequitur"), (b) identifying the meaning of function words in a text (without computer), (c) learning the meaning of the major function words (supported by a Dutch program "Word Meanings"), and (d) completing sentence with a function word (supported by the Dutch program "Doka"). The experimental lessons indicated the contributions to be expected of the programs used and also the shortcomings to be remedied in future releases.

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07–398Ammar, Ahlem (U de Montréal, Canada; ahlem.ammar@umontreal.ca) & Nina Spada, One size fits all? Recasts, prompts, and L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge University Press) 28.4 (2006), 543–574.07–399August, Gail (Hostos Community College, USA), So, what's behind adult English second language reading?Bilingual Research Journal (National Association for Bilingual Education) 30.2 (2006), 245–264.07–400Beasley, Robert (Franklin College, USA; rbeasley@franklincollege.edu), Yuangshan Chuang& Chao-chih Liao, Determinants and effects of English language immersion in Taiwanese EFL learners engaged in online music study. The Reading Matrix (Readingmatrix.com) 6.3 (2006), 330–339.07–401Brown, Jill (Monash U, Australia), Jenny Miller & Jane Mitchell, Interrupted schooling and the acquisition of literacy: Experiences of Sudanese refugees in Victorian secondary schools. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy (Australian Literacy Educators' Association) 29.2 (2006), 150–162.07–402Bunch, George C. (U California, USA), ‘Academic English’ in the 7th grade: Broadening the lens, expanding access. Journal of English for Academic Purposes (Elsevier) 5.4 (2006), 284–301.07–403Chambers, Andrea (Insa de Lyon, France; andrea.emara@insa-lyon.fr) & Stephen Bax (Canterbury Christ Church U, UK), Making CALL work: Towards normalisation. System (Elsevier) 34.4 (2006), 465–479.07–404Chan, Alice (City U of Hong Kong, China; enalice@cityu.edu.hk), Strategies used by Cantonese speakers in pronouncing English initial consonant clusters: Insights into the interlanguage phonology of Cantonese ESL learners in Hong Kong. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (Walter de Gruyter) 44.4 (2006), 331–355.07–405Coulter, Cathy (Arizona State U, USA) & Mary Lee Smith, English language learners in a comprehensive high school. Bilingual Research Journal (National Association for Bilingual Education) 30.2 (2006), 309–335.07–406Elia, Antonella (U Naples, Italy; aelia@unina.it), Language learning in tandem via skype. The Reading Matrix (Readingmatrix.com) 6.3 (2006), 269–280.07–407Ellis, Rod (U Auckland, New Zealand; r.ellis@auckland.ac.nz) & Younghee Sheen, Reexamining the role of recasts in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge University Press) 28.4 (2006), 575–600.07–408Farrell, Thomas S. C. (Brock U, Canada; tfarrell@brocku.ca) & Christophe Mallard, The use of reception strategies by learners of French as a foreign language. The Modern Language Journal (Blackwell) 90.3 (2006), 338–352.07–409Feuer, Avital (York U, Canada), Parental influences on language learning in Hebrew Sunday school classes. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Multilingual Matters) 19.3 (2006), 266–27707–410Harada, Tetsuo (Waseda U, Japan; tharada@waseda.jp), The acquisition of single and geminate stops by English-speaking children in a Japanese immersion program. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge University Press) 28.4 (2006), 601–632.07–411Karlsson, Leena (Helsinki U, Finland; leena.karlsson@helsinki.fi) Felicity Kjisik & Joan Nordlund, Language counselling: A critical and integral component in promoting an autonomous community of learning. System (Elsevier) 35.1 (2007), 46–65.07–412Lieberman, Moti (American U, USA; aoshima@american.edu) Sachiko Aoshima & Colin Phillips, Nativelike biases in generation ofwh-questions by nonnative speakers of Japanese. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge University Press) 28.3 (2006), 423–448.07–413Macaro, Ernesto (U Oxford; ernesto.macaro@edstud.ox.ac.uk), Strategies for language learning and for language use: Revising the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal (Blackwell) 90.3 (2006), 320–337.07–414Matsuzaki Carreira, Junko (Tsuda College, Japan), Motivation for learning English as a foreign language in Japanese elementary schools. JALT Journal (Japan Association for Language Teaching) 28.2 (2006), 135–157.07–415Mohan, Bernard & Tammy Slater (U British Columbia, Canada), Examining the theory/practice relation in a high school science register: A functional linguistic perspective. Journal of English for Academic Purposes (Elsevier) 5.4 (2006), 302–316.07–416Mozzon-McPherson, Marina (U Hull, UK; M.Mozzon-Mcpherson@hull.ac.uk), Supporting independent learning environments: An analysis of structures and roles of language learning advisers. System (Elsevier) 35.1 (2007), 66–92.07–417Napier, Jemina (Macquarie U, Australia), Effectively teaching discourse to sign language interpreting students. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Multilingual Matters) 19.3 (2006), 251–265.07–418Nassaji, Hossein (U Victoria, Canada; nassaji@uvic.ca), The relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and L2 learners' lexical inferencing strategy use and success. The Modern Language Journal (Blackwell) 90.3 (2006), 387–401.07–419Nıxon, Helen & Barbara Comber (U South Australia, Australia; helen.nixon@unisa.edu.au), Differential recognition of children's cultural practices in middle primary literacy classrooms. Literacy (Oxford University Press) 40.3 (2006), 127–136.07–420Reinders, Hayo (U Auckland, New Zealand; system@hayo.nl), Supporting independent learning environments: An analysis of structures and roles of language learning advisers. System (Elsevier) 35.1 (2007), 93–111.07–421Sangpıl Byon, Andrew (State U New York, USA), Language socialization in Korean as-a-foreign-language classrooms. Bilingual Research Journal (National Association for Bilingual Education) 30.2 (2006), 265–291.07–422Song, Bailin (City U New York, USA), Content-based ESL instruction: Long-term effects and outcomes. English for Specific Purposes (Elsevier) 25.4 (2006), 420–437.07–423Soonhyang, Kim (Ohio State U, Columbus, USA), Academic oral communication needs of East Asian international graduate students in non-science and non-engineering fields. English for Specific Purposes (Elsevier) 25.4 (2006), 479–489.07–424Stroud, Christopher (U West Cape, South Africa; cstroud@uwc.ac.za) & Lionel Wee, Anxiety and identity in the language classroom. RELC Journal (Sage) 37.3 (2006), 299–307.07–425Sunderman, Gretchen (Florida State U, USA; gsunderm@fsu.edu) & Judith F. Kroll, First language activation during second language lexical processing: An investigation of lexical form, meaning, and grammatical class. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge University Press) 28.3 (2006), 387–422.07–426Woodrow, Lindy J. (U Sydney, Australia; l.woodrow@edfac.usyd.edu.au), A model of adaptive language learning. The Modern Language Journal (Blackwell) 90.3 (2006), 297–319.07–427Xuesong, Gao (U Hong Kong, China; Gao@hkusua.hku.hk), Strategies used by Chinese parents to support English language learning. RELC Journal (Sage) 37.3 (2006), 285–298.07–428Zwıers, Jeff (California, USA), Integrating academic language, thinking, and content: Learning scaffolds for non-native speakers in the middle grades. Journal of English for Academic Purposes (Elsevier) 5.4 (2006), 317–332.07–429Zyzik, Eve (Michigan State U, USA; zyzik@msu.edu), Transitivity alternations and sequence learning: Insights from L2 Spanish production data. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge University Press) 28.3 (2006), 449–485.

7

Edi, Warno. "English Language Teaching and Learning Issues in Batam Learners’ Perception via Facebook Dialog Journal." ANGLO-SAXON: Jurnal Ilmiah Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris 6, no.2 (September7, 2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.33373/anglo.v6i2.361.

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The purpose of this research was to gather English as a second language (ESL) learners perceptions pertaining to their experience in learning English language in secondary schools, colleges and local universities. The research methodology incorporated dialog journal using facebook. Dialog journal is a written communication between a teacher and students or other writing partners, which provides a natural context for language development and a new channel of communication outside the classroom. The research incorporated facebook as it currently one of the most prominent online social networking sites among Indonesians. 46 respondents from public and private colleges and universities discussed various learning issues including impediment that they encountered during English lessons in secondary school, college and university: learners’ views and comments on issues pertaining to local English language teaching and learning; and suggestions to improve the teaching and learning of English. The discussion revealed varying viewpoints such as difficulties and reasons that students faced in learning the four language skills i.e. speaking, listening, reading and writing; and the lack of confidence which hampered their language improvement. This research hopes to enlighten educators of arduous challenges that students faced learning the English language so that they may strive to improve and consolidate their teaching skills.Key Words: Dialogue Response Journal; Language Proficiency; and Language Skills.

8

"Language teaching." Language Teaching 37, no.2 (April 2004): 107–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444804212228.

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04–117Al-Jarf, Reima S. (King Saud U., Saudi Arabia). The effects of web-based learning on struggling EFL college writers. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA), 37, 1 (2004), 49–57.04–118Basturkmen, Helen (University of Auckland, New Zealand; Email: h.basturkmen@auckland.ac.nz). Specificity and ESP course design. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 1 (2003), 48–63.04–119Basturkmen, H., Loewen, S. and Ellis, R. (U. of Auckland, New Zealand Email: h.basturkmen@auckland.ac.nz). Teachers' stated beliefs about incidental focus on form and their classroom practices. Applied Linguistics (Oxford, UK), 25, 2 (2004), 243–72.04–120Benson, Barbara E. (Piedmont College, Georgia, USA). Framing culture within classroom practice: culturally relevant teaching. Action in Teacher Education (Alexandria, Virginia, USA), 25, 2 (2003), 16–22.04–121Blanche, Patrick (U. of California, Davis, USA; Email: blanche@kumagaku.ac.jp). Using dictations to teach pronunciation. Modern English Teacher (London, UK), 13, 1 (2004), 30–36.04–122Budimlic, Melisa (Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Germany). Zur Konzeption und Entwicklung interdisziplinärer Lernprogramme am Beispiel eines Lernmodules zur Psycholinguistik. [The concept and development of an interdisciplinary learning programme. An example of a module in psycholinguistics] Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), Online Journal, 9, 1 (2004), 12 pp.04–123Cajkler, Wasyl (U. of Leicester, UK; Email: wc4@le.ac.uk). How a dead butler was killed: the way English national strategies maim grammatical parts. Language and Education (Clevedon, UK), 18, 1 (2004), 1–16.04–124Calvin, Lisa M. & Rider, N. Ann (Indiana State U., USA). Not your parents' language class: curriculum revision to support university language requirements. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA), 37, 1 (2004), 11–25.04–125Carrier, Karen A. (Northern Illinois University, USA). Improving high school English language learners' second language listening through strategy instruction. Bilingual Research Journal (Arizona, USA), 27, 3 (2003), 383–408.04–126Christie, Frances (Universities of Melbourne and Sydney, Australia; Email: fhchri@unimelb.edu.au). English in Australia. RELC Journal (Singapore) 34, 1 (2003), 100–19.04–127Drobná, Martina (Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Germany). Konzeption von Online-Lerneinheiten für den Unterricht Deutsch als Fremdsprache am Beispiel des Themas ‘Auslandsstudium in Deutschland’. [The concept of an online learning unit ‘Studying in Germany’ for German as a foreign language]. Zeitschrift für Iinterkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (Edmonton, Canada) Online Journal, 9, 1 (2004), 17 pp.04–128Ellis, Rod (University of Auckland, New Zealand; Email: r.ellis@auckland.ac.nz). Designing a task-based syllabus. RELC Journal (Singapore) 34, 1 (2003), 64–81.04–129Giambo, D. & McKinney, J. (University of Miami, USA) The effects of a phonological awareness intervention on the oral English proficiency of Spanish-speaking kindergarten children. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, Virginia, USA), 38, 1 (2004), 95–117.04–130Goodwyn, Andrew (Reading University, UK). The professional identity of English teachers. English in Australia (Norwood, Australia), 139 (2004), 122–30.04–131Hu, Guangwei (Nanyang Technological U., Singapore; Email: gwhu@nie.edu.sg). English language teaching in China: regional differences and contributing factors. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (Clevedon, UK), 24, 4 (2003), 290–318.04–132Jacobs, George M. (JF New Paradigm Education, Singapore; Email: gmjacobs@pacific.net.sg) and Farrell, Thomas S. C. Understanding and implementing the communicative language teaching paradigm. RELC Journal (Singapore) 34, 1 (2003), 5–30.04–133Janks, Hilary (University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa). The access paradox. English in Australia (Norwood, Australia), 139 (2004), 33–42.04–134Kim, Jeong-ryeol (Korea National U. of Education, South Korea; Email: jrkim@knue.ac.kr). Using mail talk to improve English speaking skills. English Teaching (Anseonggun, South Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 349–69.04–135Kim, Nahk-Bohk (Chungnam National University, South Korea). An investigation into the collocational competence of Korean high school EFL learners. English Teaching (Anseonggun, South Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 225–48.04–136Kormos, Judit & Dénes, Mariann (Eötvös Loránd U., Hungary; Email: kormos.j@chello.hu). Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of second language learners. System (Oxford, UK), 32, 2 (2004), 145–64.04–137Lee, Jin Kyong (Seoul National U., South Korea). The acquisition process of yes/no questions by ESL learners and its pedagogical implications. English Teaching (Anseonggun, South Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 205–24.04–138Levine, Glenn S. (U. of California, Irvine, USA). Global simulation: a student-centered, task-based format for intermediate foreign language courses. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA), 37, 1 (2004), 26–36.04–139Littlemore, Jeannette (U. of Birmingham, UK; Email: j.m.littlemore@bham.ac.uk). Using clipart and concordancing to teach idiomatic expressions. Modern English Teacher (London, UK), 13, 1 (2004), 17–44.04–140Llurda, Enric (Email: ellurda@dal.udl.es) and Huguet, Ángel (Universitat de Lleida, Spain). Self-awareness in NNS EFL Primary and Secondary school teachers. Language Awareness (Clevedon, UK), 12, 3&4 (2003), 220–33.04–141Lochtman, Katja (Vrije U., Belgium; Email: katja.lochtman@vub.ac.be). Oral corrective feedback in the foreign language classroom: how it affects interaction in analytic foreign language teaching. International Journal of Educational Research (Abingdon, UK), 37 (2002), 271–83.04–142Mackey, Alison (Georgetown U., USA; Email: mackeya@georgetown.edu). Beyond production: learners' perceptions about interactional processes. International Journal of Educational Research (Abingdon, UK), 37 (2002), 379–94.04–143Maiwald, Cordula (Passau, Germany). Zeitverstehen und Tempusformen im Deutschen – eine Herausforderung im Fremdsprachenunterricht. [The concept of time and German tenses – a challenge for a foreign language classroom] Jahrbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Munich, Germany), 29 (2003), 287–302.04–144McKay, Sandra Lee (San Francisco State U., USA; Email: 2slmckay@attbi.com). EIL curriculum development. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 1 (2003), 31–47.04–145Na, Yoon-Hee and Kim, Sun-Joo (U. of Texas at Austin, USA; Email: yhena@mail.utexas.edu). Critical literacy in the EFL classroom. English Teaching (Anseonggun, Korea), 58, 3 (2003), 143–63.04–146Nettelbeck, David (Whitefriars College, Australia). ICT and the re-shaping of literacy. A secondary classroom perspective. English in Australia (Norwood, Australia), 139 (2004), 68–77.04–147Park, Mae-Ran (Pukyong National U., South Korea; Email: mrpark@pknu.ac.kr) and Suh, Kang-Oak. An analysis of Korean high school English textbooks under the 7th curriculum. English Teaching (Anseonggun, South Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 319–47.04–148Peters, George F. (Michigan State U., USA). Kulturexkurse: a model for teaching deeper German culture in a proficiency-based curriculum. Die Unterrichtspraxis (Cherry Hill, New Jersey, USA) 36, 2 (2003), 121–34.04–149Plewnia, Albrecht (Mannheim, Germany). Vom Nutzen kontrastiven grammatischen Wissens am Beispiel von Deutsch und Französisch. [The benefits of contrastive grammar knowledge; an example of German and French] Jahrbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Munich, Germany), 29 (2003), 251–86.04–150Prodromou, Luke (Email: luke@spark.net.gr). In search of the successful user of English: how a corpus of non-native speaker language could impact on EFL teaching. Modern English Teacher (London, UK), 12, 2 (2003), 5–14.04–151Rieger, Caroline L. (U. of British Columbia, Canada). Some conversational strategies and suggestions for teaching them. Die Unterrichtspraxis (Cherry Hill, New Jersey, USA), 36, 2 (2003), 164–75.04–152Sakui, K. (U. of Auckland, New Zealand). Wearing two pairs of shoes: language teaching in Japan. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 58, 2 (2004), 155–63.04–153Schleppegrell, M., Achugar, M., & Oteíza, T. (University of California, USA). The grammar of history: enhancing content-based instruction through a functional focus on language. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, Virginia, USA), 38, 1 (2004), 67–93.04–154Sercu, Lies (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; Email: lies.sercu@arts.kuleuven.ac.be). Implementing intercultural foreign language education: Belgian, Danish and British teachers' professional self-concepts and teaching practices compared. Evaluation and Research in Education (Clevedon, UK), 16, 3 (2002), 150–65.04–155Shinwoong, Lee (Hanyang U., South Korea). Korean ESL learners' experiences in computer assisted classroom discussions. English Teaching (Anseonggun, Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 371–95.04–156Sifakis, Nicos C. (Hellenic Open U., Greece; Email: nicossif@hol.gr). TeachingEIL– TeachingInternationalorInterculturalEnglish? What Teachers Should Know. System (Oxford, UK), 32, 2 (2004), 237–50.04–157Simard, Daphnée (Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada; Email: simard.daphnee@uqam.ca). Using diaries to promote metalinguistic reflection among elementary school students. Language Awareness (Clevedon, UK), 13, 1 (2004), 34–48.04–158Song, Jeong-Weon (Hanyang U., South Korea). Effects of task-processing conditions on the oral output of post beginners in a narrative task. English Teaching (Anseonggun, Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 249–71.04–159Storch, Neomy (U. of Melbourne, Australia; Email: neomys@unimelb.edu.au). Relationships formed in dyadic interaction and opportunity for learning. International Journal of Educational Research (Abingdon, UK), 37 (2002), 305–22.04–160Tomlinson, Brian and Masuhara, Hitomi (Leeds Metropolitan U., UK; Email: B.Tomlinson@lmu.ac.uk). Developing cultural awareness. Modern English Teacher (London, UK), 13, 1 (2004), 5–12.04–161Towndrow, P. (Nangyang Technological U., Singapore). Reflections of an on-line tutor. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 58, 2 (2004), 174–82.04–162Vilches, Ma. Luz C. (Ateneo do Manila U., Philippines; Email: mvilches@ateneo.edu). Task-based language teaching: the case of EN 10. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 1 (2003), 82–99.04–163Willkop, Eva-Maria (Mainz, Germany). Texte im Mitteilungsprozess – Wege durch ein vereinigtes Babylon [Texts in the mediation process – ways through united Babylon] Jahrbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Munich, Germany), 29 (2003), 221–50.

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"Language teaching." Language Teaching 37, no.3 (July 2004): 169–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805212399.

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04–255 Belcher, Diane D. Trends in teaching English for Specific Purposes. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 165–186.04–257 Burden, P. (Okayama Shoka U., Japan; Email: burden-p@po.osu.ac.jp). An examination of attitude change towards the use of Japanese in a University English ‘conversation’ class. RELC Journal (Singapore),35,1 (2004), 21–36.04–258 Burns, Anne (Macquarie U., Australia; Email: anne.burns@mq.edu.au). ESL curriculum development in Australia: recent trends and debates. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 3 (2003), 261–283.04–259 Bush, Michael D. and Browne, Jeremy M. (Brigham Young U., USA; Email: Michael_Bush@byu.edu). Teaching Arabic with technology at BYU: learning from the past to bridge to the future. Calico Journal (Texas, USA), 21, 3 (2004), 497–522.04–260 Carlo, María S. (U. of Miami, USA; Email: carlo@miami.edu), August, Diane, McLaughlin, Barry, Snow, Catherine E., Dressler, Cheryl, Lippman, David N., Lively, Teresa J. and White, Claire E. Closing the gap: addressing the vocabulary needs of English-language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly (Newark, USA), 39, 2 (2004), 188–215.04–261 Chambers, Gary N. and Pearson, Sue (School of Education, U. of Leeds, UK). Supported access to modern foreign language lessons. Language Learning Journal (Oxford, UK), 29 (2004), 32–41.04–262 Chesterton, Paul, Steigler-Peters, Susi, Moran, Wendy and Piccioli, Maria Teresa (Australian Catholic U., Australia; Email: P.Chesterton@mary.acu.edu.au). Developing sustainable language learning pathway: an Australian initiative. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 17, 1 (2004), 48–57.04–263 Chin, Cheongsook (Inje U., South Korea; Email: langjin@inje.ac.kr). EFL learners' vocabulary development in the real world: interests and preferences. English Teaching (Anseongunn, South Korea), 59, 2 (2004), 43–58.04–264 Corda, Alessandra and van den Stel, Mieke (Leiden U., The Netherlands; Email: a.corda@let.leidenuniv.nl). Web-based CALL for Arabic: constraints and challenges. Calico Journal (Texas, USA), 21, 3 (2004), 485–495.04–265 Crawford, J. (Queensland U. of Technology, Australia; Email: j.crawford@qut.edu.au). Language choices in the foreign language classroom: target language or the learners' first language?RELC Journal (Singapore), 35, 1 (2004), 5–20.04–266 Derewianka, Beverly (Email: bevder@uow.edu.au). Trends and issues in genre-based approaches. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 2 (2003), 133–154.04–267 Esteban, Ana A. and Pérez Cañado, Maria L. (U. de Jaén, Spain). Making the case method work in teaching Business English: a case study. English for Specific Purposes (Oxford, UK), 23, 2 (2004), 137–161.04–268 Fang, Xu and Warschauer, Mark (Soochow University, China). Technology and curricular reform in China: a case study. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA), 38, 2 (2004), 301–323.04–269 Foster, James Q., Harrell, Lane Foster, and Raizen, Esther (U. of Texas, Austin, USA; Email: jqf@hpmm.com). The Hebrewer: a web-based inflection generator. Calico Journal (Texas, USA), 21, 3 (2004), 523–540.04–270 Grabe, William (Northern Arizona University, USA). Research on teaching reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 44–69.04–271 Grünewald, Andreas (University of Bremen, Germany). Neue Medien im Unterricht: Status quo und Perspektiven. [New media in the classroom: status quo and perspectives.] Der fremdsprachliche Unterricht Spanisch (Seelze, Germany), 6 (2004), 4–11.04–272 Hahn, Laura D. (U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA). Primary stress and intelligibility: research to motivate the teaching of suprasegmentals. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA), 38, 2 (2004), 201–223.04–273 Hai, T., Quiang, N. and Wolff, M. (Xinyang Agricultural College, China; Email: xytengha@163.com). China's ESL goals: are they being met?English Today (Cambridge, UK), 20, 3 (2004), 37–44.04–274 Hardy, Ilonca M. and Moore, Joyce L. (Max Planck Institute of Human Development, Germany). Foreign language students' conversational negotiations in different task environments. Applied Linguistics (Oxford, UK), 25, 3 (2004), 340–370.04–275 Helbig-Reuter, Beate. Das Europäische Portfolio der Sprachen (II). [The European Language Portfolio (II).] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 3 (2004), 173–176.04–276 Hughes, Jane (University College London, UK; Email: jane.hughes@ucl.ac.uk), McAvinia, Claire, and King, Terry. What really makes students like a web site? What are the implications for designing web-based learning sites?ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 16, 1 (2004), 85–102.04–277 Jackson, J. (The Chinese U. of Hong Kong). Case-based teaching in a bilingual context: perceptions of business faculty in Hong Kong. English for Specific Purposes (Oxford, UK), 23, 3 (2004), 213–232.04–278 Jenkins, Jennifer (Kings College London, UK). Research in teaching pronunciation and intonation. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA.), 24 (2004), 109–125.04–279 Kanda, M. and Beglar, D. (Shiga Prefectural Adogawa Senior High School, Japan; Email: makiko-@iris.eonet.ne.jp). Applying pedagogical principles to grammar instruction. RELC Journal (Singapore), 35, 1 (2004), 105–115.04–280 Kang, I. (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology; Email: iyang@mail.kaist.ac.kr). Teaching spelling pronunciation of English vowels to Korean learners in relation to phonetic differences. English Teaching (Anseonggun, South Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 157–176.04–281 Kiernan, Patrick J. (Tokyo Denki University, Japan; Email: patrick@cck.dendai.ac.jp) and Aizawa, Kazumi. Cell phones in task based learning. Are cell phones useful language learning tools?ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 16, 1 (2004), 71–84.04–282 Kim, Eun-Jeong (Kyungpook National U., South Korea; Email: ejkbuffalo@yahoo.co.kr). Considering task structuring practices in two ESL classrooms. English Teaching (Anseongunn, South Korea), 59, 2 (2004), 123–144.04–283 Kondo, David and Yang, Ying-Ling (University of f*ckui, Japan). Strategies for coping with language anxiety: the case of students of English in Japan. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 58, 3 (2004), 258–265.04–284 Lin, Benedict (SEAMO RELC, Singapore). English in Singapore: an insider's perspective of syllabus renewal through a genre-based approach. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 2 (2003), 223–246.04–285 Lu, Dan (Hong Kong Baptist U., Hong Kong; Email: dan_lu@hkbu.ac.hk). English in Hong Kong: Super Highway or road to nowhere? Reflections on policy changes in language education of Hong Kong. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 3 (2003), 370–384.04–286 Lui, Jun (U. of Arizona, USA). Effects of comic strips on L2 learners' reading comprehension. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA), 38, 2 (2004), 225–243.04–287 Lukjantschikowa, Marija. Textarbeit als Weg zu interkultureller Kompetenz. [Working with texts as a means to develop intercultural competence.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 3 (2004), 161–165.04–288 Lüning, Marita (Landesinstitut für Schule in Bremen, Germany). E-Mail-Projekte im Spanischunterricht. [E-Mail-Projects in the Spanish classroom.] Der fremdsprachliche Unterricht Spanisch (Seelze, Germany), 6 (2004), 30–36.04–289 Lyster, R. (McGill U., Canada; Email: roy.lyster@mcgill.ca). Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focussed instruction. Studies in Second Language Acqusition (New York, USA), 26, 3 (2004), 399–432.04–290 McCarthy, Michael (University of Nottingham, UK) and O'Keeffe, Anne. Research in the teaching of speaking. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 26–43.04–291 Mitschian, Haymo. Multimedia. Ein Schlagwort in der medienbezogenen Fremdsprachendidaktik. [Multimedia. A buzzword for language teaching based on digital media.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 3 (2004), 131–139.04–292 Mohamed, Naashia (U. of Auckland, New Zealand). Consciousness-raising tasks: a learner perspective. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 58, 3 (2004), 228–237.04–293 Morrell, T. (U. of Alicante, Spain). Interactive lecture discourse for university EFL students. English for Specific Purposes (Oxford, UK), 23, 3 (2004), 325–338.04–294 Nassaji, Hossein and Fotos, Sandra. Current developments in research on the teaching of grammar. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 126–145.04–295 Pérez Basanta, Carmen (U. of Granada, Spain; Email: cbasanta@ugr.es). Pedagogic aspects of the design and content of an online course for the development of lexical competence: ADELEX. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 16, 1 (2004), 20–40.04–296 Read, John. Research in teaching vocabulary. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 146–161.04–297 Rössler, Andrea (Friedrich-Engels-Gymansium in Berlin, Germany). Música actual. [Contemporary music.] Der fremdsprachliche Unterricht Spanisch (Seelze, Germany), 4 (2004), 4–9.04–298 Sachs, Gertrude Tinker (Georgia State U., USA; Email: gtinkersachs@gsu.edu), Candlin, Christopher N., Rose, Kenneth R. and Shum, Sandy. Developing cooperative learning in the EFL/ESL secondary classroom. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 3 (2003), 338–369.04–299 Seidlhofer, Barbara. Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 200–239.04–300 Silva, Tony (Purdue U., USA) and Brice, Colleen. Research in teaching writing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 70–106.04–301 ková, Alena. Zur jüngeren germanistischen Wortbildungsforschung und zur Nutzung der Ergebnisse für Deutsch als Fremdsprache. [The newest German research in word formation and its benefits for learning German as a foreign language.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 3 (2004), 140–151.04–302 Simmons-McDonald, Hazel. Trends in teaching standard varieties to creole and vernacular speakers. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 187–208.04–303 Smith, B. (Arizona State U. East, USA; Email: bryan.smith@asu.edu). Computer-mediated negotiated interaction and lexical acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (New York, USA), 26, 3 (2004), 365–398.04–304 Son, Seongho (U. Kyungpool, South Korea). DaF – Unterricht digital. [A digital teaching of German as a foreign language.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 2 (2004), 76–77.04–305 Spaniel, Dorothea. Deutschland-Images als Einflussfaktor beim Erlernen der deutschen Sprache. [The images of Germany as an influencing factor in the process of learning German.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 3 (2004), 166–172.04–306 Steveker, Wolfgang (Carl-Fuhlrott-Gymnasium Wuppertal, Germany). Spanisch unterrichten mit dem Internet – aber wie? [Internet-based teaching of Spanish – how to do this?] Der fremdsprachliche Unterricht Spanisch (Seelze, Germany), 6 (2004), 14–17.04–307 Stoller, Fredricka L. Content-based instruction: perspectives on curriculum planning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK), 24 (2004), 261–283.04–308 Thompson, L. (U. of Manchester, UK; Email: linda.thompson@man.ac.uk). Policy for language education in England: Does less mean more?RELC Journal (Singapore), 35,1 (2004), 83–103.04–309 Tomlinson, Brian (Leeds Metropolitan U., UK; Email: B.Tomlinson@lmu.ac.uk). Helping learners to develop an effective L2 inner voice. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 2 (2003), 178–194.04–310 Vandergrift, Larry (U. of Ottawa, Canada). Listening to learn or learning to listen?Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (New York, USA), 24 (2004), 3–25.04–311 Vences, Ursula (University of Cologne, Germany). Lesen und Verstehen – Lesen heißt Verstehen. [Reading and Comprehension – Reading is Comprehension.] Der fremdsprachliche Unterricht Spanisch (Seelze, Germany), 5 (2004), 4–11.04–312 Xinmin, Zheng and Adamson, Bob (Hong Kong U., Hong Kong; Email: sxmzheng@hkusua.hku.hk). The pedagogy of a secondary school teacher of English in the People's Republic of China: challenging the stereotypes. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 3 (2003), 323–337.04–313 Zlateva, Pavlina. Faktizität vs. Prospektivität als Stütze beim Erwerb grammatischer Erscheinungen im Deutschen. [Factuality versus Prospectivity in aid of the acquisition of grammar phenomena in German.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 3 (2004), 158–160.

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"Reading and writing." Language Teaching 37, no.4 (October 2004): 275–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805232639.

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04–517Armand, Françoise (U. de Montréal, Canada; Email: Francoise.Armand@umontreal.ca), Lefrançoise, Pascale, Baron, Agnès, Gomez, Maria-Cécilia and Nuckle, Sylvie. Improving reading and writing learning in underprivileged pluri-ethnic settings. British Journal of Educational Psychology (Leicester, UK), 74 (2004), 437–459.04–518Cheng, Y-S. (National Taiwan Normal U., Taiwan; Email: t22035@cc.ntnu.edu.tw). A measure of second language writing anxiety: scale development and preliminary validation. Journal of Second Language Writing (New York, USA), 13, 4 (2004), 313–335.04–519de Jong, Maria T. and Bus, Adriana G. (Leiden U., Netherlands; Email: jongtm@fsw.leidenuniv.nl). The efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children's emergent story understanding. Reading Research Quarterly (Newark, USA), 39, 4 (2004), 378–393.04–520Dunsmuir, Sandra (U. College London, UK; Email: s.dunsmuir@ucl.ac.uk) and Blatchford, Peter. Predictors of writing competence in 4-to 7-year-old children. British Journal of Educational Psychology (Leicester, UK), 74 (2004), 461–483.04–521Forey, Gail (Hong Kong Polytechnic U.). Workplace texts: do they mean the same for teachers and business people?English for Specific Purposes (Oxford,UK), 23, 4 (2004), 447–469.04–522Harwood, Nigel and Hadley, Gregg (U. of Essex, UK). Pragmatism and the teaching of academic writing. English for Specific Purposes. (Oxford, UK), 23, 4 (2004), 355–379.04–523Heinz, Peter J. (Pikes Peak Community College, Colorado Springs, USA). Towards enhanced second language reading comprehension assessment: computerized versus manual scoring of written recall protocols. Reading in a Foreign Language (Hawai'i, USA), 16, 2 (2004), 97–124.04–524Huxford, L. (National Primary Strategy, England). Developing an understanding of the pedagogy of writing in the middle years (age 8–11). Australian Journal of Language and Literacy. (Norwood, South Australia), 27, 3 (2004), 234–244.04–525Hyland, Ken (Institute of Education, U. of London, UK; Email: k.hyland@ioe.ac.uk). Disciplinary interactions: metadiscourse in L2 postgraduate writing. Journal of Second Language Writing (New York, USA), 13, 2 (2004), 133–151.04–526Joh, Jeongsoon (Konkuk U., Korea; Email: johjs@konkuk.ac.kr). Interactions among the reader, text and task variables in EFL reading comprehension performance. English Teaching (Anseonggun, Korea), 59, 3 (2004) 115–143.04–527Lee, Icy (Hong Kong Baptist U., China; Email: icylee@hkbu.edu.hk). Error correction in L2 secondary writing classrooms: the case of Hong Kong. Journal of Second Language Writing (New York, USA), 13, 4 (2004), 285–312.04–528Makalela, Leketi (U. of Limpopo and Michigan State U.). Differential error types in second-language students' written and spoken texts: implications for instruction in writing. Written Communication (Thousand Oaks, CA, USA), 22, 4 (2004), 368–385.04–529McNaughton, S., Lai, M., MacDonald, S. and Farry, S. (Auckland U., Australia). Designing more effective teaching of comprehension in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms in New Zealand. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy. (Norwood, South Australia), 27, 3 (2004), 184–197.04–530Moore, Tim (Monash U., Australia; Email: tim.moore@celts.monash.edu.au) and Morton, Janne. Dimensions of difference: a comparison of university writing and IELTS writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes (Oxford, UK), 4, 1 (2005), 43–66.04–531Taguchi, Etsuo (Daito Bunka U., Tokyo; Email: taguchi@ic.daito.ac.jp), Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko and Gorsuch, Greta J. Developing reading fluency in EFL: How assisted repeated reading and extensive reading affect fluency development. Reading in a Foreign Language (Hawai'i, USA), 16, 2 (2004), 70–96.04–532Yoon, Hyunsook and Hirvela, Alan (The Ohio State U., USA; Email: yoon.98@osu.edu). ESL student attitudes toward corpus use in L2. Journal of Second Language Writing (New York, USA), 13, 4 (2004), 257–283.

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"Language teaching." Language Teaching 38, no.1 (January 2005): 19–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805212521.

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05–01Ainsworth, Judith (Wilfrid Laurier U, Canada). Hôtel Renaissance:using a project case study to teach business French. Journal of Language for International Business (Glendale, AZ, USA) 16.1 (2005), 43–59.05–02Bärenfänger, Olaf (U of Leipzig, Germany). Fremdsprachenlemen durch Lernmanagement: Grundzüge eines projektbasierten Didaktikkonzepts [Foreign language learning through learning management: main features of a didactic project-based concept]. Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen (Tübingen, Germany) 33 (2004), 251–267.05–03Benati, Alessandro (U of Greenwich, UK; a.benati@gre.ac.uk). The effects of processing instruction, traditional instruction and meaning-output instruction on the acquisition of the English past simple tense. Language Teaching Research (London, UK) 9.1 (2005), 67–93.05–04Carless D. (Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong). Issues in teachers' reinterpretation of a task-based innovation in primary schools. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA) 38.4 (2004), 639–662.05–05Curry, M. J. & Lillis, T. (U of Rochester, New York, USA). Multilingual scholars and the imperative to publish in English: negotiating interests, demands, and rewards. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA) 38.4 (2004), 663–688.05–06Dufficy, Paul (U of Sydney, Australia; p.dufficy@edfac.usyd.edu.au). Predisposition to choose: the language of an information gap task in a multilingual primary classroom. Language Teaching Research (London, UK) 8.3 (2004), 241–261.05–07Evans, Michael & Fisher, Linda (U of Cambridge, UK; mje1000@hermes.cam.ac.uk). Measuring gains in pupils' foreign language competence as a result of participating in a school exchange visit: the case of Y9 pupils at three comprehensive schools in the UK. Language Teaching Research (London, UK) 9.2 (2005), 173–192.05–08Gunn, Cindy (The American U of Sharjah, UAE; cgunn@ausharjah.edu). Prioritizing practitioner research: an example from the field. Language Teaching Research (London, UK) 9.1 (2005), 97–112.05–09Hansen, J. G. & Liu, J. (U of Arizona, USA). Guiding principles for effective peer response. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK) 59.1 (2005), 31–38.05–10Hatoss, Anikó (U of Southern Queensland, Australia; hatoss@usq.edu.au). A model for evaluating textbooks. Babel – Journal of the AFMLTA (Queensland, Australia) 39.2 (2004), 25–32.05–11Kabat, Kaori, Weibe, Grace & Chao, Tracy (U of Alberta, Canada). Challenge of developing and implementing multimedia courseware for a Japanese language program. CALICO Journal (TX, USA), 22.2 (2005), 237–250.05–12Kuo, Wan-wen (U of Pennsylvania, USA). Survival skills in foreign languages for business practitioners: the development of an online Chinese project. Journal of Language for International Business (Glendale, AZ, USA) 16.1 (2005), 1–17.05–13Liu, D., Ahn, G., Baek, K. & Han, N. (Oklahoma City U, USA). South Korean high school English teachers' code switching: questions and challenges in the drive for maximal use of English in teaching. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA) 38.4 (2004), 605–638.05–14Lotherington, Heather (York U, Canada). What four skills? Redefining language and literacy standards for ELT in the digital era. TESL Canada Journal (Burnaby, Canada) 22.1 (2004), 64–78.05–15Lutjeharms, Madeline (Vrije U, Belgium). Der Zugriff auf das mentale Lexikon und der Wortschatzerwerb in der Fremdsprache [Access to the mental lexicon and vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language]. Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen (Tübingen, Germany) 33 (2004), 10–24.05–16Lyster, Roy (McGill U, Canada; roy.lyster@mcgill.ca). Research on form-focused instruction in immersion classrooms: implications for theory and practice. French Language Studies (Cambridge, UK) 14.3 (2004), 321–341.05–17Mackey, Alison (Georgetown U, USA; mackeya@georgetown.edu), Polio, Charlene & McDonough, Kim The relationship between experience, education and teachers' use of incidental focus-on-form techniques. Language Teaching Research (London, UK) 8.3 (2004), 301–327.05–18MacLennan, Janet (U of Puerto Rico). How can I hear your voice when someone else is speaking for you? An investigation of the phenomenon of the classroom spokesperson in the ESL classroom. TESL Canada Journal (Burnaby, Canada) 22.1 (2004), 91–97.05–19Mangubhai, Francis (U of Southern Queensland, Australia; mangubha@usq.edu.au), Marland, Perc, Dashwood, Ann & Son, Jeong-Bae. Similarities and differences in teachers' and researchers' conceptions of communicative language teaching: does the use of an educational model cast a better light?Language Teaching Research (London, UK) 9.1 (2005), 31–66.05–20Meskill, Carla & Anthony, Natasha (Albany State U of New York, USA; cmeskill@uamail.albany.edu). Foreign language learning with CMC: forms of online instructional discourse in a hybrid Russian class. System (Oxford, UK) 33.1 (2005), 89–105.05–21Paribakht, T. S. (U of Ottawa, Canada; parbakh@uottowa.ca). The role of grammar in second language lexical processing. RELC Journal (Singapore) 35.2 (2004), 149–160.05–22Ramachandran, Sharimllah Devi (Kolej U Teknikal Kebangsaan, Malaysia; sharimllah@kutkm.edu.my) & Rahim, Hajar Abdul. Meaning recall and retention: the impact of the translation method on elementary level learners' vocabulary learning. RELC Journal (Singapore) 35.2 (2004), 161–178.05–23Roessingh, Hetty & Johnson, Carla (U of Calgary, Canada). Teacher-prepared materials: a principled approach. TESL Canada Journal (Burnaby, Canada) 22.1 (2004), 44–63.05–24Rogers, Sandra H. (Otago Polytechnic English Language Institute, New Zealand; sandrar@tekotago.ac.nz). Evaluating textual coherence: a case study of university business writing by EFL and native English speaking students in New Zealand. RELC Journal (Singapore) 35.2 (2004), 135–147.05–25Sheen, Young Hee (Teachers College, Columbia U, USA; ys335@columbia.edu). Corrective feedback and learner uptake in communicative classrooms across instructional settings. Language Teaching Research (London, UK) 8.3 (2004), 263–300.05–26Sparks, Richard L. (College of Mt. St. Joseph, USA) Ganschow, Leonore, Artzer, Marjorie E., Siebenhar, David & Plageman, Mark. Foreign language teachers' perceptions of students' academic skills, affective characteristics, and proficiency: replication and follow-up studies. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA) 37.2 (2004), 263–278.05–27Taguchi, Naoko (Carnegie Mellon U, USA). The communicative approach in Japanese secondary schools: teachers perceptions and practice. The Language Teacher (Japan) 29.3 (2005), 3–12.05–28Tsang, Wai King (City U of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; entsanwk@cityu.edu.hk). Feedback and uptake in teacher-student interaction: an analysis of 18 English lessons in Hong Kong secondary classrooms. RELC Journal (Singapore) 35.2(2004), 187–209.05–29Weinberg, Alice (U of Ottowa, Canada). Les chansons de la francophonie website and its two web-usage-tracking systems in an advanced listening comprehension course. CALICO Journal (TX, USA) 22.2 (2005), 251–268.05–30West, D. Vanisa (Messiah College, PA, USA). Literature in lower-level courses: making progress in both language and reading skills. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA) 37.2 (2004), 209–223.05–31Williams, Cheri (U of Cincinnati, USA) & Hufnagel, Krissy. The impact of word study instruction on kindergarten children's journal writing. Research in the Teaching of English (Urbana, IL, USA) 39.3 (2005), 233–270.

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"Language learning." Language Teaching 38, no.2 (April 2005): 81–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805222772.

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05–135Armstrong, Kevin (Leicester U, UK; ka50@le.ac.uk), Sexing up the dossier: a semantic analysis of phrasal verbs for language teachers. Language Awareness (Clevedon, UK) 13.4 (2004), 213–224.05–136Baker, William & Boonkit, Kamonpan (Silpakorn U, Thailand; willmlbaker@yahoo.co.uk), Learning strategies in reading and writing: EAP contexts. RELC Journal (Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) 35.3 (2004), 299–328.05–137Bell, N. (Indiana U of Pennsylvania, USA), Exploring L2 language play as an aid to SLL: a case study of humour in NS–NNS interaction. Applied Linguistics (Oxford, UK) 26.2 (2005), 192–218.05–138Bohn, Mariko T. (Stanford U, USA; mbohn@stanford.edu), Japanese classroom behavior: a micro-analysis of self-reports versus classroom observations – with implications for language teachers. Applied Language Learning (Monterey, CA, USA) 14.1 (2004), 1–35.05–139Bryan, S. (Arizona State U East, USA), The relationship between negotiated interaction, learner uptake, and lexical acquisition in task-based computer-mediated communication. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA) 39.1 (2005), 33–58.05–140Byon, Andrew Sangpil (U at Albany, State U of New York, USA; abyon@albany.edu), Learning linguistic politeness. Applied Language Learning (Monterey, CA, USA) 14.1 (2004), 37–62.05–141Cekaite, A. & Aronsson, K. (Linköping U, Sweden), Language play, a collaborative resource in children's L2 learning. Applied Linguistics (Oxford, UK) 26.2 (2005), 169–191.05–142Culhane, Stephen F. (Kagoshima U, Japan; culhane@pacall.org) & Umeda, Chisako (Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific U, Japan), Authentic second language interaction in an instructional setting: assessing an inter-class exchange programme. RELC Journal (Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) 35.3 (2004), 281–298.05–143Dancer, Diane & Kamvounias, Patty (Sydney U, Australia; d.dancer@econ.usyd.edu.ac), Student involvement in assessment: a project designed to assess class participation fairly and reliably. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (Abingdon, UK) 30.4 (2005), 445–454.05–144Dong, Naiting (Jiangsu Polytechnic U, China), Failures of intercultural communication caused by translating from Chinese into English. English Today (Cambridge, UK) 21.1 (2005), 11–16.05–145Egi, Takako (Florida U, USA; tegi@aall.ufl.edu), Verbal reports, noticing, and SLA research. Language Awareness (Clevedon, UK) 13.4 (2004), 243–264.05–146Fernández Toledo, Piedad (Murcia U, Spain; piedad@um.es), Genre analysis and reading of English as a foreign language: genre schemata beyond text typologies. Journal of Pragmatics (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 37.7 (2005), 1059–1079.05–147Fisher, Linda, Evans, Michael & Esch, Edith (U of Cambridge, UK; igf20@cam.ac.uk), Computer-mediated communication: promoting learner autonomy and intercultural understanding at secondary level. Language Learning Journal (Rugby, UK) 30 (2004), 50–58.05–148Gass, Susan & Alvarez Torres, Maria José (Michigan State U, USA; gass@msu.edu), Attention when? An investigation of the ordering effect of input and interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK) 27.1 (2005), 1–31.05–149Hawkins, M. (U of Wisconsin, USA), Becoming a student: identity work and academic literacies in early schooling. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA) 39.1 (2005), 159–182.05–150Hosali, Priya (CIEFL, Hyderabad, India), Butler English. English Today (Cambridge, UK) 21.1 (2005), 34–39.05–151Jackson, Jane (Chinese U of Hong Kong, China; jjackson@arts.cuhk.edu.hk), Language and cultural immersion: an ethnographic case study. RELC Journal (Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) 35.3 (2004), 261–279.05–152Kintsch, W. (Colorado U, USA), An overview of top-down and bottom-up effects in comprehension: the CI perspective. Discourse Processes (Mahwah, NJ, USA) 39.2/3 (2005), 125–128.05–153Koyama, Jill P. (Columbia U, USA), Appropriating policy: constructing positions for English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal (Tempe, AZ, USA) 28. 3 (2004), 401–423.05–154Lambacher, Stephen G. (Aizu U, Japan; steeve@u-aizu.ac.jp), Martens, William, L., Kakehi, Kazukiko, Marasinghe, Chandrajith, A. & Molholt, Garry, The effects of identification training on the identification and production of American English vowels by native speakers of Japanese. Applied Psycholinguistics (Cambridge, UK), 26.2 (2005), 227–247.05–155McDonough, Kim (U of Illinois, USA; mcdonokr@uiuc.edu), Identifying the impact of negative feedback and learners' responses on ESL question development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK) 27.1 (2005), 79–103.05–156Meara, Paul (U of Wales Swansea, UK; p.m.meara@swansea.ac.uk), Lexical frequency profiles: a Monte Carlo analysis. Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK) 26.1 (2005), 32–47.05–157Read, John (Victoria U of Wellington, New Zealand; john.read@vuw.ac.nz), Research in teaching vocabulary. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK) 24 (2004), 146–161.05–158Richardson, John T. (Open U, UK; j.t.e.richardson@open.ac.uk), Instruments for obtaining student feedback: a review of the literature. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (Abingdon, UK) 30.4 (2005), 387–415.05–159Savage, Robert (Institute of Education, London U, UK) & Carless, Sue, Learning support assistants can deliver effective reading interventions for ‘at-risk’ children. Educational Research (Abingdon, UK) 47.1 (2005), 45–61.05–160Schmenk, B. (U of Waterloo, Canada), Globalizing learner autonomy. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA) 39.1 (2005), 107–118.05–161Sheard, Susan & Markham, Selby (Monash U, Australia), Web based learning environments: developing a framework for evaluation. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (Abingdon, UK) 30.4 (2005), 353–368.05–162Smartt, Jerry, T. (Friends U, USA) & Scudder, Rosalind R., Immersion study abroad in Mexico: using repair behaviors to assess proficiency changes. Foreign Language Annals (Alexandria, VA, USA) 37.4 (2004), 592–601.05–163Takahashi, Satomi (Rikkyo U, Japan; satomit@rikkyo.ne.jp), Pragmalinguistic awareness: is it related to motivation and proficiency?Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK) 26.1 (2005), 90–120.05–164Timmis, I. (Leeds Metropolitan U, UK), Towards a framework for teaching spoken grammar. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK) 59.2 (2005), 117–125.05–165Torres, Germán (Georgia State U, USA), Practical ways to integrate literature into Spanish for international business courses. Foreign Language Annals (Alexandria, VA, USA) 37.4 (2004), 584–591.05–166Vandergrift, Larry (Ottawa U, Canada; lvdgrift@uottawa.ca), Listening to learn or learning to listen?Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK) 24 (2004), 3–25.05–167Vandergrift, Larry (Ottawa U, Canada; lvdgrift@uottawa.ca), Relationships among motivation orientations, metacognitive awareness and proficiency in L2 listening. Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK) 26.1 (2005), 70–89.05–168Webb, Stuart (Koran Women's Junior College, Japan; swebb@fka.att.ne.jp), Receptive and productive vocabulary learning: the effects of reading and writing on word knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK) 27.1 (2005), 33–52.05–169Wee, Lee (Singapore National U, Singapore; ellweeha@nus.edu.sg), Intra-language discrimination and linguistic human rights: the case of singlish. Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK) 26.1 (2005), 48–69.05–170Williams, Marion, Burden, Robert, Poulet, Gérard & Maun, Ian (U of Exeter, UK; m.d.williams@exeter.ac.uk), Learners' perceptions of their successes and failures in foreign language learning. Language Learning Journal (Rugby, UK) 30 (2004), 19–29.

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"Language learning." Language Teaching 37, no.3 (July 2004): 183–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805222395.

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04–314 Alloway, N., Gilbert, P., Gilbert, R., and Henderson, R. (James Cook University, Australia Email: Nola.Alloway@jcu.edu.au). Boys Performing English. Gender and Education (Abingdon, UK), 15, 4 (2003), 351–364.04–315 Barcroft, Joe (Washington U., USA; Email: barcroft@wustl.edu). Distinctiveness and bidirectional effects in input enhancement for vocabulary learning. Applied Language Learning (Monterey, CA, USA), 13, 2 (2003), 133–159.04–316 Berman, Ruth, A. and Katzenberger, Irit (Tel Aviv U., Israel; Email: rberman@post.tau.ac.il). Form and function in introducing narrative and expository texts: a developmental perspective. Discourse Processes (New York, USA), 38, 1 (2004), 57–94.04–317 Byon, Andrew Sangpil (State University of New York at Albany, USA; Email: abyon@albany.edu). Language socialisation and Korean as a heritage language: a study of Hawaiian classrooms. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 16, 3 (2003), 269–283.04–318 Chambers, Angela (University of Limerick, Ireland; Email: Angela.Chambers@ul.ie) and O'Sullivan, Íde. Corpus consultation and advanced learners' writing skills in French. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 16, 1 (2004), 158–172.04–319 Chan, Alice Y. W. (City U. of Hong Kong; Email: enalice@cityu.edu.hk). Noun phrases in Chinese and English: a study of English structural problems encountered by Chinese ESL students in Hong Kong. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 17, 1 (2004), 33–47.04–320 Choi, Y-J. (U. of Durham, UK; Email: yoonjeongchoi723@hotmail.com). Intercultural communication through drama in teaching English as an international language. English Teaching (Anseonggun, South Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 127–156.04–321 Chun, Eunsil (Ewha Womens U., South Korea; Email: aceunsil@hananet.net). Effects of text types and tasks on Korean college students' reading comprehension. English Teaching (Anseonggun, South Korea), 59, 2 (2004), 75–100.04–322 Collentine, Joseph (Northern Arizona U., USA; Email: Joseph.Collentine@nau.edu). The effects of learning contexts on morphosyntactic and lexical development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (New York, USA), 26 (2004), 227–248.04–323 Davies, Beatrice (Oxford Brookes U., UK). The gender gap in modern languages: a comparison of attitude and performance in year 7 and 10. Language Learning Journal (Oxford, UK), 29 (2004), 53–58.04–324 Díaz-Campos, Manuel (Indiana U., USA; Email: mdiazcam@indiana.edu). Context of learning in the acquisition of Spanish second language phonology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (New York, USA), 26 (2004), 249–273.04–325 Donato, Richard. Aspects of collaboration in pedagogical discourse. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK), 24 (2004), 284–302.04–326 Felix, Uschi (Monash U., Australia; Email: Uschi.Felix@arts.monash.edu.au). A multivariate analysis of secondary students' experience of web-based language acquisition. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 16, 1 (2004), 237–249.04–327 Feuerhake, Evelyn, Fieseler, Caroline, Ohntrup, Joy-Sarah and Riemer, Claudia (U. of Bielefeld, Germany). Motivation und Sprachverlust in der L2 Französisch: eine retrospektive Übungsstudie. [Motivation and language attrition in French as a second language (L2): a retrospective research exercise.] Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (Alberta, Canada), 9, 2 (2004), 29.04–328 Field, John (U. of Leeds & Reading, UK; Email: jcf1000@dircon.co.uk). An insight into listeners' problems: too much bottom-up or too much top-down?System (Oxford, UK), 32, 3 (2004) 363–377.04–329 Freed, Barbara F., Segalowitz, Norman, and Dewey, Dan D. (Carnegie Mellon, U., USA; Email: bf0u+@andrew.cmu.edu). Context of learning and second language fluency in French. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (New York, USA), 26 (2004), 275–301.04–330 Grotjahn, Rüdiger (U. of Bochum, Germany). Test and Attitudes Scale for the Year Abroad (TESTATT): Sprachlernmotivation und Einstellungen gegenüber Sprechern der eigenen und der fremden Sprache. [Test and Attitudes Scale for the Year Abroad (TESTATT): Motivation to learn foreign languages and attitudes toward speakers of one's own and foreign language.] Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (Alberta, Canada), 9, 2 (2004), 23.04–331 Helbig-Reuter, Beate. Das Europäische Portfolio der Sprache (I). [The European Language Portfolio (I).] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 2 (2004), 104–110.04–332 Hopp, Marsha A. and Hopp, Theodore H. (ZigZag, Inc., USA; Email: marsha.hopp@newSLATE.com). NewSLATE: building a web-based infrastructure for learning non-Roman script languages. Calico Journal (Texas, USA), 21, 3 (2004), 541–555.04–333 Jun Zhang, Lawrence (Nanyang Tech. U., Singapore; Email: izhang@nie.edu.sg). Research into Chinese EFL learner strategies: methods, findings and instructional issues. RELC Journal (Singapore), 34, 3 (2003), 284–322.04–334 Kim, H-D. (The Catholic U. of Korea, Korea). Individual Differences in Motivation with Regard to Reactions to ELT Materials. English Teaching (Anseonggun, South Korea), 58, 4 (2003), 177–203.04–335 Kirchner, Katharina (University of Hamburg, Germany). Motivation beim Fremdsprachenerwerb. Eine qualitative Pilotstudie zur Motivation schwedischer Deutschlerner. [Motivation in foreign language acquisition. A qualitative pilot study on motivation of Swedish learners of German.] Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (Alberta, Canada), 9, 2 (2004), 32.04–336 Kleppin, Karin (U. of Leipzig, Germany). ‘Bei dem Lehrer kann man ja nichts lernen”. Zur Unterstützung der Motivation durch Sprachlernberatung. [‘You cannot learn anything from the teacher”: counselling in foreign language learning and its role as motivational support.] Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (Alberta, Canada), 9, 2 (2004), 16.04–337 Kormos, Judith (Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, Hungary) and Dörnyei, Zoltán. The interaction of linguistics and motivational variables in second language task performance. Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (Alberta, Canada), 9, 2 (2004), 19.04–338 Lafford, Barbara A. (Arizona State U., USA; Email: blafford@asu.edu). The effect of the context of learning on the use of communication strategies by learners of Spanish as a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (New York, USA), 26 (2004), 201–225.04–339 Leahy, Christine (Nottingham Trent U., UK; Email: echristine.leahy@ntu.ac.uk). Observations in the computer room: L2 output and learner behaviour. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 16, 1 (2004), 124–144.04–340 Lee, Cynthia F. K. (Hong Kong Baptist U.; Email: cfklee@hkbu.edu.hk). Written requests in emails sent by adult Chinese learners of English. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 17, 1 (2004) 58–72.04–341 Leow, Ronald P. (Georgetown U., USA; Email: RLEOW@guvax.georgetown.edu), Egi, Takako, Nuevo, Ana María and Tsai, Ya-Chin. The roles of textual enhancement and type of linguistic item in adult L2 learners' comprehension and intake. Applied Language Learning (California, USA), 13, 2 (2003), 93–108.04–342 Lund, Randall J. Erwerbssequenzen im Klassenraum. [Order of acquisition in the classroom.]. Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 2 (2004), 99–103.04–343 McBride, Nicole (London Metropolitan University, UK; Email: n.mcbride@londonmet.ac.uk). The role of the target language in cultural studies: two surveys in UK universities. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 16, 3 (2003), 298–311.04–344 McIntosh, N. Cameron and Noels, A. Kimberly (U. of Alberta, Canada). Self-Determined Motivation for Language Learning: The Role of Need for Cognition and Language Learning Strategies. Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht (Alberta, Canada), 9, 2 (2004), 28.04–345 Montrul, Silvina (U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA; Email: montrul@uiuc.edu). Psycholinguistic evidence for split intransitivity in Spanish second language acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics (Cambridge, UK), 25 (2004), 239–267.04–346 Orsini-Jones, Marina (Coventry U., UK; Email: m.orsini@coventry.ac.uk). Supporting a course in new literacies and skills for linguists with a Virtual Learning Environment. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 16, 1 (2004), 189–209.04–347 Philip, William (Utrecht U., Netherlands; Email: bill.philip@let.uu.nl) and Botschuijver, Sabine. Discourse integration and indefinite subjects in child English. IRAL (Berlin, Germany), 42, 2 (2004), 189–201.04–348 Rivalland, Judith (Edith Cowan U., Australia). Oral language development and access to school discourses. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy (Norwood, South Australia), 27, 2 (2004), 142–158.04–349 Rosa, Elena, M. and Leow, Ronald, P. (Georgetown U., USA). Awareness, different learning conditions, and second language development. Applied Psycholinguistics (Cambridge, UK), 25 (2004), 269–292.04–350 Schwarz-Friesel, Monika. Kognitive Linguistik heute – Metaphernverstehen als Fallbeispiel. [Cognitive Linguistics today – the case of understanding metaphors.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Leipzig, Germany), 2 (2004), 83–89.04–351 Segalowitz, Norman and Freed, Barbara, F. (Concordia U., USA; Email: sgalow@vax2.concordia.ca). Context, contact, and cognition in oral fluency acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (New York, USA), 26 (2004), 173–199.04–352 Sleeman, Petra (U. of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Email: A.P.Sleeman@uva.nl). Guided learners of French and the acquisition of emphatic constructions. 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"Abstracts: Language testing." Language Teaching 40, no.4 (September7, 2007): 355–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444807004612.

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07–604Abbott, Marilyn (Alberta Education, Canada; marilyn.abbott@gov.ab.ca), A confirmatory approach to differential item functioning on an ESL reading assessment. Language Testing (Sage) 24.1 (2007), 7–36.07–605Barber, Richard (Dubai Women's College, UAE), A practical model for creating efficient in-house placement tests. The Language Teacher (Japan Association for Language Teaching) 31.2 (2007), 3–7.07–606Cheng, Liying, Don Klinger & Ying Zheng (Queen's U, Canada; chengl@edu.queensu.ca), The challenges of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test for second language students. Language Testing (Sage) 24.2 (2007), 185–208.07–607Cohen, Andrew (U Minnesota, USA) & Thomas Upton, ‘I want to go back to the text’: Response strategies on the reading subtest of the new TOEFL®. Language Testing (Sage) 24.2 (2007), 209–250.07–608Dávid, Gergely (Eötvös Loránd U, Hungary; david.soproni@t-online.hu), Investigating the performance of alternative types of grammar items. Language Testing (Sage) 24.1 (2007), 65–97.07–609Elder, Catherine (U Melbourne, Australia; caelder@unimelb.edu.au), Gary Barkhuizen, Ute Knoch & Janet Von Randow, Evaluating rater responses to an online training program for L2 writing assessment. Language Testing (Sage) 24.1 (2007), 37–64.07–610Qian, David (The Hong Kong Polytechnic U, China; David.Qian@polyu.edu.hk), Assessing university students: Searching for an English language exit test. RELC Journal (Sage) 38.1 (2007), 18–37.07–611Scott Walters, Francis (U New York, USA; Francis.Walters@qc.cuny.edu), A conversation-analytic hermeneutic rating protocol to assess L2 oral pragmatic competence. Language Testing (Sage) 24.2 (2007), 155–183.07–612Shiotsu, Toshihiko (Kurume U, Japan; toshihiko_shiotsu@kurume-u.ac.jp) & Cyril Weir, The relative significance of syntactic knowledge and vocabulary breadth in the prediction of reading comprehension test performance. Language Testing (Sage) 24.1 (2007), 99–128.07–613Vanderveen, Terry (Kangawa U, Japan), The effect of EFL students' self-monitoring on class achievement test scores. JALT Journal (Japan Association for Language Teaching) 28.2 (2006), 197–206.07–614Xi, Xiaoming (Educational Testing Service, USA; xxi@ets.org), Evaluating analytic scoring for the TOEFL® Academic Speaking Test (TAST) for operational use. Language Testing (Sage) 24.2 (2007), 251–286.

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"Language testing." Language Teaching 37, no.3 (July 2004): 198–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805242398.

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04–378 Arkoudis, Sophie (U. of Melbourne, Australia; Email: s.arkoudis@unimelb.edu.au) and O'Loughlin, Kieran. Tensions between validity and outcomes: teacher assessment of written work of recently arrived ESL students. Language Testing (London, UK), 24, 3 (2004), 284–304.04–379 Cheng, Lyang (Queen's U. Canada; Email: chengl@educ.queensu.ca). Rogers, Todd and Hu, Huiqin. ESL/EFL instructors' classroom assessment practices: purpose, methods and procedures. Language Testing (London, UK), 24, 3 (2004), 360–389.04–380 Davison, Chris (U. of Hong Kong, China; Email: cdavison@hkucc.hku.hk). The contradictory culture of teacher-based assessment: ESL teacher assessment practices in Australian and Hong Kong secondary schools. Language Testing (London, UK), 24, 3 (2004), 305–334.04–381 Edelenbos, Peter (U. of Groningen and The Netherlands Language Academy, The Netherlands; Email: peter.edelenbos@talenacademie.nl) and Kubanek-German, Angelika. Teacher-assessment: the concept of ‘diagnostic competence'. Language Testing (London, UK), 24, 3 (2004), 259–283.04–382 Laufer, Batia and Goldstein, Zahava (U. of Haifa, Israel; Email: batialau@research.haifa.ac.il). Testing vocabulary knowledge: size, strength, and computer adaptiveness. Language Learning (Malden, Massachusetts, USA), 54, 3 (2004), 399–436.04–383 Lee, Soyoung (Inha U., South Korea; Email: soyoungl@inha.ac.kr). A study on comparability of paper-based and computer-based reading tests scores. English Teaching (Anseongunn, South Korea), 59, 2 (2004), 165–178.04–384 Leung, Constant (Kings College, London, UK; Email: leung@kcl.ac.uk) and Mohan, Bernard. Teacher formative assessment and talk in classroom contexts: assessment as discourse and assessment of discourse. Language Testing (London, UK), 24, 3 (2004), 335–359.04–385 MacDonald, Kim (St Francis Xavier U, Canada; Email: kmcdona@stfx.ca), Nielsen, Jean and Lai, Lisa. Selecting and using computer-based language tests (CBLTs) to assess language proficiency: guidelines for educators. TESL Canada Journal/Revue TESL du Canada (Burnaby, Canada), 21, 2 (2004), 93–104.

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"Language teaching." Language Teaching 36, no.4 (October 2003): 252–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444804212009.

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04–538 Allford, D. Institute of Education, University of London. d.allford@sta01.joe.ac.uk‘Grasping the nettle’: aspects of grammar in the mother tongue and foreign languages. Language Learning Journal (Rugby, UK), 27 (2003), 24–32.04–539 Álvarez, Inma (The Open U., UK). Consideraciones sobre la contribución de los ordenadores en el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras. [The contribution of computers to foreign language learning.] Vida Hispánica (Rugby, UK), 28 (2003), 19–23.04–540 Arkoudis, S. (U. of Melbourne, Australia; Email: sophiaa@unimelb.edu.au). Teaching English as a second language in science classes: incommensurate epistemologies?Language and Education (Clevedon, UK), 17, 3 (2003), 161–173.04–541 Bandin, Francis and Ferrer, Margarita (Manchester Metropolitan U., UK). Estereotípicos. [Stereotypes.] Vida Hispánica. Association for Language Learning (Rugby, UK), 28 (2003), 4–12.04–542 Banno, Eri (Okayama University). A cross-cultural survey of students’ expectations of foreign language teachers. Foreign Language Annals, 36, 3 (2003), 339–346.04–543 Barron, Colin (U. of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Email: csbarron@hkusua.hku.hk). Problem-solving and EAP: themes and issues in a collaborative teaching venture. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 22, 3 (2003), 297–314.04–544 Bartley, Belinda (Lord Williams's School, Thame). Developing learning strategies in writing French at key stage 4. Francophonie (London, UK), 28 (2003), 10–17.04–545 Bax, S. (Canterbury Christ Church University College). The end of CLT: a context approach to language teaching. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 57, 3 (2003), 278–287.04–546 Caballero, Rodriguez (Universidad Jaume I, Campus de Borriol, Spain; Email: mcaballe@guest.uji.es). How to talk shop through metaphor: bringing metaphor research to the ESP classroom. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 22, 2 (2003), 177–194.04–547 Field, J. (University of Leeds). Promoting perception: lexical segmentation in L2 listening. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 57, 4 (2003), 325–334.04–548 Finkbeiner, Matthew and Nicol, Janet (U. of Arizona, AZ, USA; Email: msf@u.Arizona.edu). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics (Cambridge, UK), 24, 3 (2003), 369–384.04–549 Frazier, S. (University of California). A corpus analysis of would-clauses without adjacent if-clauses. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA), 37, 3 (2003), 443–466.04–550 Harwood, Nigel (Canterbury Christ Church University College, UK). Taking a lexical approach to teaching: principles and problems. International Journal of Applied Linguistics (Oxford, UK), 12, 2 (2002), 139–155.04–551 Hird, Bernard (Edith Cowan U., Australia; Email: b.hird@ecu.edu.au). What are language teachers trying to do in their lessons?Babel, (Adelaide, Australia) 37, 3 (2003), 24–29.04–552 Ho, Y-K. (Ming Hsin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan). Audiotaped dialogue journals: an alternative form of speaking practice. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 57, 3 (2003), 269–277.04–553 Huang, Jingzi (Monmouth University, West Long Branch, NJ, USA). Chinese as a foreign language in Canada: a content-based programme for elementary school. Language, Culture and Curriculum (), 16, 1 (2003), 70–89.04–554 Kennedy, G. (Victoria University of Wellington). Amplifier collocations in the British National Corpus: implications for English language teaching. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA), 37, 3 (2003), 467–487.04–555 Kissau, Scott P. (U. of Windsor, UK & Greater Essex County District School Board; Email: scotkiss@att.canada.ca). The relationship between school environment and effectiveness in French immersion. The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics (Ottawa, Canada), 6, 1 (2003), 87–104.04–556 Laurent, Maurice (Messery). De la grammaire implicite à la grammaire explicite. [From Implicit Grammar to Explicit Grammar.] Tema, 2 (2003), 40–47.04–557 Lear, Darcy (The Ohio State University, USA). Using technology to cross cultural and linguistic borders in Spanish language classrooms. Hispania (Ann Arbor, USA), 86, 3 (2003), 541–551.04–558 Leeser, Michael J. (University of Illianos at Urbana-Champaign, USA; Email: leeser@uiuc.edu). Learner proficiency and focus on form during collaborative dialogue. Language Teaching Research, 8, 1 (2004), 55.04–559 Levis, John M. (Iowa State University, USA) and Grant, Linda. Integrating pronunciation into ESL/EFL classrooms. TESOL Journal, 12 (2003), 13–19.04–560 Mitchell, R. (Centre for Language in Education, University of Southampton; Email: rfm3@soton.ac.uk) Rethinking the concept of progression in the National Curriculum for Modern Foreign Languages: a research perspective. Language Learning Journal (Rugby, UK), 27 (2003), 15–23.04–561 Moffitt, Gisela (Central Michigan U., USA). Beyond Struwwelpeter: using German picture books for cultural exploration. Die Unterrichtspraxis (Cherry Hill, NJ, USA), 36, 1 (2003), 15–27.04–562 Morley, J. and Truscott, S. (University of Manchester; Email: mfwssjcm@man.ac.uk). The integration of research-oriented learning into a Tandem learning programme. Language Learning Journal (Rugby, UK), 27 (2003), 52–58.04–563 Oliver, Rhonda (Edith Cowan U., Australia; Email: rhonda.oliver@cowan.edu.au) and Mackey, Alison. Interactional context and feedback in child ESL classrooms. The Modern Language Journal (Madison, WI, USA), 87, 4 (2003), 519–533.04–564 Pachler, N. (Institute of Education, University of London; Email: n.pachler@ioe.ac.uk). Foreign language teaching as an evidence-based profession?Language Learning Journal (Rugby, UK), 27 (2003), 4–14.04–565 Portmann-Tselikas, Paul R. (Karl-Franzens Universität Graz, Austria). Grammatikunterricht als Schule der Aufmerksamkeit. Zur Rolle grammatischen Wissens im gesteuerten Spracherwerb. [Grammar teaching as a training of noticing. The role of grammatical knowledge in formal language learning.] Babylonia (Switzerland, www.babylonia), 2 (2003), 9–18.04–566 Purvis, K. (Email: purvis@senet.com.au) and Ranaldo, T. Providing continuity in learning from Primary to Secondary. Babel, 38, 1 (2003), (Adelaide, Australia), 13–18.04–567 Román-Odio, Clara and Hartlaub, Bradley A. (Kenyon College, Ohio, USA). Classroom assessment of Computer-Assisted Language Learning: developing a strategy for college faculty. Hispania (Ann Arbor, USA), 86, 3 (2003), 592–607.04–568 Schleppegrell, Mary J. (University of California, Davis, USA) and Achugar, Mariana. Learning language and learning history: a functional linguistics approach. TESOL Journal, 12, 2 (2003), 21–27.04–569 Schoenbrodt, Lisa, Kerins, Marie and Geseli, Jacqueline (Loyola College in Maryland, Baltimore, USA; Email: lschoenbrodt@loyola.edu) Using narrative language intervention as a tool to increase communicative competence in Spanish-speaking children. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 16, 1 (2003), 48–59.04–570 Shen, Hwei-Jiun (National Taichung Institute of Technology). The role of explicit instruction in ESL/EFL reading. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA), 36, 3 (2003), 424–433.04–571 Sifakis, N. C. (Hellenic Open U., Greece; Email: nicossif@hol.gr). Applying the adult education framework to ESP curriculum development: an integrative model. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 22, 2 (2003), 195–211.04–572 Simpson, R. and Mendis, D. (University of Michigan). A corpus-based study of idioms in academic speech. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA), 37, 3 (2003), 419–441.

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"Language teaching." Language Teaching 36, no.2 (April 2003): 120–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444803211939.

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03—230 Andress, Reinhard (St. Louis U., USA), James, Charles J., Jurasek, Barbara, Lalande II, John F., Lovik, Thomas A., Lund, Deborah, Stoyak, Daniel P., Tatlock, Lynne and Wipf, Joseph A.. Maintaining the momentum from high school to college: Report and recommendations. Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German (Cherry Hill, NJ, USA), 35, 1 (2002), 1—14.03—231 Andrews, David R. (Georgetown U., USA.). Teaching the Russian heritage learner. Slavonic and East European Journal (Tucson, Arizona, USA), 45, 3 (2001), 519—30.03—232 Ashby, Wendy and Ostertag, Veronica (U. of Arizona, USA). How well can a computer program teach German culture? Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German (Cherry Hill, NJ, USA), 35, 1 (2002), 79—85.03—233 Bateman, Blair E. (937 17th Avenue, SE Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA; Email: bate0048@umn.edu). Promoting openness toward culture learning: Ethnographic interviews for students of Spanish. The Modern Language Journal (Malden, MA, USA), 86, 3 (2002), 318—31.03—234 Belz, Julie A. and Müller-Hartmann, Andreas. Deutsche-amerikanische Telekollaboration im Fremdsprachenuterricht – Lernende im Kreuzfeuer der institutionellen Zwänge. [German-American tele-collaboration in foreign language teaching – learners in the crossfire of institutional constraints.] Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German (Cherry Hill, NJ, USA), 36, 1 (2002), 68—78.03—235 Bosher, Susan and Smalkoski, Kari (The Coll. of St. Catherine, St. Paul, USA; Email: sdbosher@stkate.edu). From needs analysis to curriculum development: Designing a course in health-care communication for immigrant students in the USA. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 21, 1 (2002), 59—79.03—236 Brandl, Klaus (U. of Washington, USA; Email: brandl@u.washington.edu). Integrating Internet-based reading materials into the foreign language curriculum: From teacher- to student-centred approaches. Language Learning and Technology (http://llt.msu.edu/), 6, 3 (2002), 87—107.03—237 Bruce, Nigel (Hong Kong U.; Email: njbruce@hku.hk). Dovetailing language and content: Teaching balanced argument in legal problem answer writing. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 21, 4 (2002), 321—45.03—238 Bruton, Anthony (U. of Seville, Spain; Email: abruton@siff.us.es). From tasking purposes to purposing tasks. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 56, 3 (2002), 280—95.03—239 Candlin, C. N. (Email: enopera@cityu.edu.hk), Bhatia, V. K. and Jensen, C. H. (City U. of Hong Kong). Developing legal writing materials for English second language learners: Problems and perspectives. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 21, 4 (2002), 299—320.03—240 Chen, Shumei. A contrastive study of complimentary responses in British English and Chinese, with pedagogic implications for ELT in China. Language Issues (Birmingham, UK), 13, 2 (2001), 8—11.03—241 Chudak, Sebastian (Adam-Mickiewicz-Universität, Poznán, Poland). Die Selbstevaluation im Prozess- und Lernerorientierten Fremdsprachenunterricht (Bedeutung, Ziele, Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten). [The self-evaluation of process- and learner-oriented foreign language teaching.] Glottodidactica (Poznań, Poland), 28 (2002), 49—63.03—242 Crosling, Glenda and Ward, Ian (Monash U., Clayton, Australia; Email: glenda.crosling@buseco.monash.edu.au). Oral communication: The workplace needs and uses of business graduate employees. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 21, 1 (2002), 41—57.03—243 Davidheiser, James (U. of the South, USA). Classroom approaches to communication: Teaching German with TPRS (Total Physical Response Storytelling). Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German (Cherry Hill, NJ, USA), 35, 1 (2002), 25—35.03—244 Duff, Patricia A. (U. of British Columbia, Canada; Email: patricia.duff@ubc.ca). The discursive co-construction of knowledge, identity, and difference: An ethnography of communication in the high school mainstream. Applied Linguistics (Oxford, UK), 23, 3 (2002), 289—322.03—245 Egbert, Joy (Washington State U., USA; Email: egbert@wsunix.wsu.edu), Paulus, Trena M. and Nakamichi, Yoko. The impact of CALL instruction on classroom computer use: A foundation for rethinking technology in teacher education. Language Learning and Technology (http://llt.msu.edu/), 6, 3 (2002), 108—26.03—246 Einbeck, Kandace (U. of Colorado at Boulder, USA). Using literature to promote cultural fluency in study abroad programs. Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German (Cherry Hill, NJ, USA), 35, 1 (2002), 59—67.03—247 Fallon, Jean M. (Hollins U., Virginia, USA). On foreign ground: One attempt at attracting non-French majors to a French Studies course. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA), 35, 4 (2002), 405—13.03—248 Furuhata, Hamako (Mount Union Coll., Ohio, USA; Email: furuhah@muc.edu). Learning Japanese in America: A survey of preferred teaching methods. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 15, 2 (2002), 134—42.03—249 Goldstein, Tara (Ontario Inst. for Studies in Ed., U. of Toronto, Canada). No Pain, No Gain: Student playwriting as critical ethnographic language research. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes (Toronto, Ont.), 59, 1 (2002), 53—76.03—250 Hu, Guangwei (Nanyang Technological U., Singapore; Email: gwhu@nie.edu.sg). Potential cultural resistance to pedagogical imports: The case of communicative language teaching in China. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 15, 2 (2002), 93—105.03—251 Huang, Jingzi (Monmouth U., New Jersey, USA; Email: jhuang@monmouth.edu). Activities as a vehicle for linguistic and sociocultural knowledge at the elementary level. Language Teaching Research (London, UK), 7, 1 (2003), 3—33.03—252 Hyland, Ken (City U. of Hong Kong; Email: ken.hyland@cityu.edu.hk). Specificity revisited: How far should we go now? English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 21, 4 (2002), 385—95.03—253 Jahr, Silke. Die Vermittlung des sprachen Ausdrucks von Emotionen in DaF-Unterricht. [The conveying of the oral expression of emotion in teaching German as a foreign language.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Berlin, Germany), 39, 2 (2002), 88–95.03—254 Jung, Yunhee (U. of Alberta, Canada; Email: jhee6539@hanmail.net). Historical review of grammar instruction and current implications. English Teaching (Korea), 57, 3 (2002), 193—213.03—255 Kagan, Olga and Dillon, Kathleen (UCLA, USA & UC Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning, USA). A new perspective on teaching Russian: Focus on the heritage learner. Slavonic and East European Journal (Tucson, Arizona, USA), 45, 3 (2001), 507—18.03—256 Kang, Hoo-Dong (Sungsim Coll. of Foreign Languages, Korea; Email: hdkang2k@hanmail.net). Tracking or detracking?: Teachers' views of tracking in Korean secondary schools. English Teaching (Korea), 57, 3 (2002), 41—57.03—257 Kramsch, Claire (U. of California at Berkeley, USA). Language, culture and voice in the teaching of English as a foreign language. Language Issues (Birmingham, UK), 13, 2 (2001), 2—7.03—258 Krishnan, Lakshmy A. and Lee, Hwee Hoon (Nanyang Tech. U., Singapore; Email: clbhaskar@ntu.edu.sg). Diaries: Listening to ‘voices’ from the multicultural classroom. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 56, 3 (2002), 227—39.03—259 Lasagabaster, David and Sierra, Juan Manuel (U. of the Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; Email: fiblahed@vc.ehu.es). University students' perceptions of native and non-native speaker teachers of English. Language Awareness (Clevedon, UK), 11, 2 (2002), 132—42.03—260 Lennon, Paul. Authentische Texte im Grammatikunterricht. [Authentic texts in grammar teaching.] Praxis des neusprachlichen Unterrichts (Berlin, Germany), 49, 3 (2002), 227–36.03—261 Lepetit, Daniel (Clemson U., USA; Email: dlepetit@mail.clemson.edu) and Cichocki, Wladyslaw. Teaching languages to future health professionals: A needs assessment study. The Modern Language Journal (Malden, MA, USA), 86, 3 (2002), 384—96.03—262 Łȩska-Drajerczak, Iwona (Adam Mickiewicz U., Poznán, Poland). Selected aspects of job motivation as seen by EFL teachers. Glottodidactica (Poznán, Poland), 28 (2002), 103—12.03—263 Liontas, John I. (U. of Notre-Dame, USA). ZOOMANIA: The See-Hear-and-Do approach to FL teaching and learning. Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German (Cherry Hill, NJ, USA), 35, 1 (2002), 36—58.03—264 Littlemore, Jeannette (Birmingham U., UK). Developing metaphor interpretation strategies for students of economics: A case study. Les Cahiers de l'APLIUT (Grenoble, France), 21, 4 (2002) 40—60.03—265 Mantero, Miguel (The U. of Alabama, USA). Bridging the gap: Discourse in text-based foreign language classrooms. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA), 35, 4 (2002), 437—56.03—266 Martin, William M. (U. of Pennsylvania, USA) and Lomperis, Anne E.. Determining the cost benefit, the return on investment, and the intangible impacts of language programmes for development. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA), 36, 3 (2002), 399—429.03—267 Master, Peter (San Jose State U., CA, USA: Email: pmaster@sjsu.edu). Information structure and English article pedagogy. System (Oxford, UK), 30, 3 (2002), 331—48.03—268 Mertens, Jürgen. Schrift im Französischunterricht in der Grundschule: Lernehemnis oder Lernhilfe? [Writing in teaching French in primary school: Learning aid or hindrance?] Neusprachliche Mitteilungen aus Wissenschaft und Praxis (Berlin, Germany), 55, 3 (2002), 141–49.03—269 Meskill, Carla (U. at Albany, USA; Email: cmeskill@uamail.albany.edu), Mossop, Jonathan, DiAngelo, Stephen and Pasquale, Rosalie K.. Expert and novice teachers talking technology: Precepts, concepts, and misconcepts. Language Learning and Technology (http://llt.msu.edu/), 6, 3 (2002), 46—57.03—270 Mitchell, Rosamond and Lee, Jenny Hye-Won (U. of Southampton, UK; Email: rfm3@soton.ac.uk). Sameness and difference in classroom learning cultures: Interpretations of communicative pedagogy in the UK and Korea. Language Teaching Research (London, UK), 7, 1 (2003), 35—63.03—271 Mohan, Bernard (U. of British Columbia, Canada; Email: bernard.mohan@ubc.ca) and Huang, Jingzi. Assessing the integration of language and content in a Mandarin as a foreign language classroom. Linguistics and Education (New York, USA), 13, 3 (2002), 405—33.03—272 Mori, Junko (U. of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; Email: jmori@facstaff.wisc.edu). Task design, plan, and development of talk-in-interaction: An analysis of a small group activity in a Japanese language classroom. Applied Linguistics (Oxford, UK), 23, 3 (2002), 323—47.03—273 O'Sullivan, Emer (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-U. Frankfurt, Germany; Email: osullivan@em.uni-frankfurt.de) and Rösler, Dietmar. Fremdsprachenlernen und Kinder-und Jugendliteratur: Eine kritische Bestandaufsnahme. [Foreign language learning and children's literature: A critical appraisal.] Zeitschrift für Fremdsprachenforschung (Germany), 13, 1 (2002), 63—111.03—274 Pfeiffer, Waldemar (Europa Universität Viadrina – Frankfurt an der Oder, Germany). Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der interkulturellen Sprachvermittlung. [The possibilities and limits of intercultural language teaching.] Glottodidactica (Poznán, Poland), 28 (2002), 125—39.03—275 Rebel, Karlheinz (U. Tübingen, Germany) and Wilson, Sybil. Das Portfolio in Schule und Lehrerbildung (I). [The portfolio in school and the image of a teacher (I).] Fremdsprachenunterricht (Berlin, Germany), 4 (2002), 263–71.03—276 Sonaiya, Remi (Obafemi Awolowo U., Ile-ife, Nigeria). Autonomous language learning in Africa: A mismatch of cultural assumptions. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK), 15, 2 (2002), 106—16.03—277 Stapleton, Paul (Hokkaido U., Japan; Email: paul@ilcs.hokudai.ac.jp). Critical thinking in Japanese L2 writing: Rethinking tired constructs. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 56, 3 (2002), 250—57.03—278 Sullivan, Patricia (Office of English Language Progs., Dept. of State, Washington, USA, Email: psullivan@pd.state.gov) and Girginer, Handan. The use of discourse analysis to enhance ESP teacher knowledge: An example using aviation English. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), 21, 4 (2002), 397—404.03—279 Tang, Eunice (City U. of Hong Kong) and Nesi, Hilary (U. of Warwick, UK; Email: H.J.Nesi@warwick.ac.uk). Teaching vocabulary in two Chinese classrooms: Schoolchildren's exposure to English words in Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Language Teaching Research (London, UK), 7, 1 (2003), 65—97.03—280 Timmis, Ivor (Leeds Metropolitan U., UK; Email: i.timmis@lmu.ac.uk). Native-speaker norms and International English: A classroom view. ELT Journal (Oxford, UK), 56, 3 (2002), 240—49.03—281 Toole, Janine and Heift, Trude (Simon Fraser U., Bumaby, BC, Canada; Email: toole@sfu.ca). The Tutor Assistant: An authoring tool for an Intelligent Language Tutoring System. Computer Assisted Language Learning (Lisse, The Netherlands), 15, 4 (2002), 373—86.03—282 Turner, Karen and Turvey, Anne (Inst. of Ed., U. of London, UK; Email: k.turner@ioe.ac.uk). The space between shared understandings of the teaching of grammar in English and French to Year 7 learners: Student teachers working collaboratively. Language Awareness (Clevedon, UK), 11, 2 (2002), 100—13.03—283 Warschauer, Mark (U. of California, USA). A developmental perspective on technology in language education. TESOL Quarterly (Alexandria, VA, USA), 36, 3 (2002), 453—75.03—284 Weasenforth, Donald (The George Washington U., USA; Email: weasenf@gwu.edu), Biesenbach-Lucas, Sigrun and Meloni, Christine. Realising constructivist objectives through collaborative technologies: Threaded discussions. Language Learning and Technology (http://llt.msu.edu/), 6, 3 (2002), 58—86.

18

"Reading & Writing." Language Teaching 38, no.4 (October 2005): 216–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805253144.

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05–486Balnaves, Edmund (U of Sydney, Australia; ejb@it.usyd.edu.au), Systematic approaches to long term digital collection management. Literary and Linguistic Computing (Oxford, UK) 20.4 (2005), 399–413.05–487Barwell, Graham (U of Wollongong, Australia; gbarwell@uow.edu.au), Original, authentic, copy: conceptual issues in digital texts. Literary and Linguistic Computing (Oxford, UK) 20.4 (2005), 415–424.05–488Beech, John R. & Kate A. Mayall (U of Leicester, UK; JRB@Leicester.ac.uk), The word shape hypothesis re-examined: evidence for an external feature advantage in visual word recognition. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.3 (2005), 302–319.05–489Belcher, Diane (Georgia State U, USA; dbelcher1@gsu.edu) & Alan Hirvela, Writing the qualitative dissertation: what motivates and sustains commitment to a fuzzy genre?Journal of English for Academic Purposes (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 4.3 (2005), 187–205.05–490Bernhardt, Elisabeth (U of Minnesota, USA; ebernhar@stanford.edu), Progress and procrastination in second language reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (Cambridge, UK) 25 (2005), 133–150.05–491Bishop, Dorothy (U of Oxford, UK; dorothy.bishop@psy.ox.ac.uk), Caroline Adams, Annukka Lehtonen & Stuart Rosen, Effectiveness of computerised spelling training in children with language impairments: a comparison of modified and unmodified speech input. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.2 (2005), 144–157.05–492Bowey, Judith A., Michaela McGuigan & Annette Ruschena (U of Queensland, Australia; j.bowey@psy.uq.edu.au), On the association between serial naming speed for letters and digits and word-reading skill: towards a developmental account. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.4 (2005), 400–422.05–493Bowyer-Crane, Claudine & Margaret J. Snowling (U of York, UK; c.crane@psych.york.ac.uk), Assessing children's inference generation: what do tests of reading comprehension measure?British Journal of Educational Psychology (Leicester, UK) 75.2 (2005), 189–201.05–494Bruce, Ian (U of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand; ibruce@waikato.ac.nz), Syllabus design for general EAP writing courses: a cognitive approach. Journal of English for Academic Purposes (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 4.3 (2005), 239–256.05–495Burrows, John (U of Newcastle, Australia; john.burrows@netcentral.com.au), Who wroteShamela? Verifying the authorship of a parodic text. Literary and Linguistic Computing (Oxford, UK) 20.4 (2005), 437–450.05–496Clarke, Paula, Charles Hulme & Margaret Snowling (U of York, UK; CH1@york.ac.uk), Individual differences in RAN and reading: a response timing analysis. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.2 (2005), 73–86.05–497Colledge, Marion (Metropolitan U, London, UK; m.colledge@londonmet.ac.uk), Baby Bear or Mrs Bear? Young English Bengali-speaking children's responses to narrative picture books at school. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.1 (2005), 24–30.05–498De Pew, Kevin Eric (Old Dominion U, Norfolk, USA; Kdepew@odu.edu) & Susan Kay Miller, Studying L2 writers' digital writing: an argument for post-critical methods. Computers and Composition (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 22.3 (2005), 259–278.05–499Dekydtspotter, Laurent (Indiana U, USA; ldekydts@indiana.edu) & Samantha D. Outcalt, A syntactic bias in scope ambiguity resolution in the processing of English French cardinality interrogatives: evidence for informational encapsulation. Language Learning (Malden, MA, USA) 55.1 (2005), 1–36.05–500Fernández Toledo, Piedad (Universidad de Murcia, Spain; piedad@um.es), Genre analysis and reading of English as a foreign language: genre schemata beyond text typologies. Journal of Pragmatics37.7 (2005), 1059–1079.05–501French, Gary (Chukyo U, Japan; french@lets.chukyo-u.ac.jp), The cline of errors in the writing of Japanese university students. World Englishes (Oxford, UK) 24.3 (2005), 371–382.05–502Green, Chris (Hong Kong Polytechnic U, Hong Kong, China), Profiles of strategic expertise in second language reading. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics (Hong Kong, China) 9.2 (2004), 1–16.05–503Groom, Nicholas (U of Birmingham, UK; nick@nicholasgroom.fsnet.co.uk), Pattern and meaning across genres and disciplines: an exploratory study. Journal of English for Academic Purposes (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 4.3 (2005), 257–277.05–504Harris, Pauline & Barbara McKenzie (U of Wollongong, Australia; pharris@uow.edu.au), Networking aroundThe Waterholeand other tales: the importance of relationships among texts for reading and related instruction. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.1 (2005), 31–37.05–505Harrison, Allyson G. & Eva Nichols (Queen's U, Canada; harrisna@post.queensu.ca), A validation of the Dyslexia Adult Screening Test (DAST) in a post-secondary population. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.4 (2005), 423–434.05–506Hirvela, Alan (Ohio State U, USA; hirvela.1@osu.edu), Computer-based reading and writing across the curriculum: two case studies of L2 writers. Computers and Composition (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 22.3 (2005), 337–356.05–507Holdom, Shoshannah (Oxford U, UK; shoshannah.holdom@oucs.ox.ac.uk), E-journal proliferation in emerging economies: the case of Latin America. Literary and Linguistic Computing (Oxford, UK) 20.3 (2005), 351–365.05–508Hopper, Rosemary (U of Exeter, UK; r.hopper@ex.ac.uk), What are teenagers reading? Adolescent fiction reading habits and reading choices. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.3 (2005), 113–120.05–509Jarman, Ruth & Billy McClune (Queen's U, Northern Ireland; r.jarman@qub.ac.uk), Space Science News: Special Edition, a resource for extending reading and promoting engagement with newspapers in the science classroom. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.3 (2005), 121–128.05–510Jia-ling Charlene Yau (Ming Chuan U, Taiwan; jyau@mcu.edu.tw), Two Mandarin readers in Taiwan: characteristics of children with higher and lower reading proficiency levels. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.2 (2005), 108–124.05–511Justice, Laura M, Lori Skibbel, Andrea Canning & Chris Lankford (U of Virginia, USA; ljustice@virginia.edu), Pre-schoolers, print and storybooks: an observational study using eye movement analysis. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.3 (2005), 229–243.05–512Kelly, Alison (Roehampton U, UK; a.m.kelly@roehampton.ac.uk), ‘Poetry? Of course we do it. It's in the National Curriculum.’ Primary children's perceptions of poetry. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.3 (2005), 129–134.05–513Kern, Richard (U of California, Berkeley, USA; rkern@berkeley.edu) & Jean Marie Schultz, Beyond orality: investigating literacy and the literary in second and foreign language instruction. The Modern Language Journal (Malden, MA, USA) 89.3 (2005), 381–392.05–514Kispal, Anne (National Foundation for Educational Research, UK; a.kispal@nfer.ac.uk), Examining England's National Curriculum assessments: an analysis of the KS2 reading test questions, 1993–2004. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.3 (2005), 149–157.05–515Kriss, Isla & Bruce J. W. Evans (Institute of Optometry, London, UK), The relationship between dyslexia and Meares-Irlen Syndrome. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.3 (2005), 350–364.05–516Lavidor, Michal & Peter J. Bailey (U of Hull, UK; M.Lavidor@hull.ac.uk), Dissociations between serial position and number of letters effects in lateralised visual word recognition. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.3 (2005), 258–273.05–517Lee, Sy-ying (Taipei, Taiwan, China; syying.lee@msa.hinet.net), Facilitating and inhibiting factors in English as a foreign language writing performance: a model testing with structural equation modelling. Language Learning (Malden, MA, USA) 55.2 (2005), 335–374.05–518Leppänen, Ulla, Kaisa Aunola & Jari-Erik Nurmi (U of Jyväskylä, Finland; uleppane@psyka.jyu.fi), Beginning readers' reading performance and reading habits. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.4 (2005), 383–399.05–519Lingard, Tony (Newquay, Cornwall, UK; tonylingard@awled.co.uk), Literacy Acceleration and the Key Stage 3 English strategy–comparing two approaches for secondary-age pupils with literacy difficulties. British Journal of Special Education32.2, 67–77.05–520Liu, Meihua (Tsinghua U, China; ellenlmh@yahoo.com) & George Braine, Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. System (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 33.4 (2005), 623–636.05–521Masterson, Jackie, Veronica Laxon, Emma Carnegie, Sheila Wright & Janice Horslen (U of Essex; mastj@essex.ac.uk), Nonword recall and phonemic discrimination in four- to six-year-old children. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.2 (2005), 183–201.05–522Merttens, Ruth & Catherine Robertson (Hamilton Reading Project, Oxford, UK; ruthmerttens@onetel.net.uk), Rhyme and Ritual: a new approach to teaching children to read and write. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.1 (2005), 18–23.05–523Min Wang (U of Maryland, USA; minwang@umd.edu) & Keiko Koda, Commonalities and differences in word identification skills among learners of English as a Second Language. Language Learning (Malden, MA, USA) 55.1 (2005), 71–98.05–524O'Brien, Beth A., J. Stephen Mansfield & Gordon E. Legge (Tufts U, Medford, USA; beth.obrien@tufts.edu), The effect of print size on reading speed in dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.3 (2005), 332–349.05–525Pisanski Peterlin, Agnes (U of Ljubljana, Slovenia; agnes.pisanski@guest.arnes.si), Text-organising metatext in research articles: an English–Slovene contrastive analysis. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 24.3 (2005), 307–319.05–526Rilling, Sarah (Kent State U, Kent, USA; srilling@kent.edu), The development of an ESL OWL, or learning how to tutor writing online. Computers and Composition (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 22.3 (2005), 357–374.05–527Schacter, John & Jo Booil (Milken Family Foundation, Santa Monica, USA; schacter@sbcglobal.net), Learning when school is not in session: a reading summer day-camp intervention to improve the achievement of exiting First-Grade students who are economically disadvantaged. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.2 (2005), 158–169.05–528Shapira, Anat (Gordon College of Education, Israel) & Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitz, Opening windows on Arab and Jewish children's strategies as writers. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK) 18.1 (2005), 72–90.05–529Shillco*ck, Richard C. & Scott A. McDonald (U of Edinburgh, UK; rcs@inf.ed.ac.uk), Hemispheric division of labour in reading. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.3 (2005), 244–257.05–530Singleton, Chris & Susannah Trotter (U of Hull, UK; c.singleton@hull.ac.uk), Visual stress in adults with and without dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.3 (2005), 365–378.05–531Spelman Miller, Kristyan (Reading U, UK; k.s.miller@reading.ac.uk), Second language writing research and pedagogy: a role for computer logging?Computers and Composition (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 22.3 (2005), 297–317.05–532Su, Susan Shiou-mai (Chang Gung College of Technology, Taiwan, China) & Huei-mei Chu, Motivations in the code-switching of nursing notes in EFL Taiwan. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics (Hong Kong, China) 9.2 (2004), 55–71.05–533Taillefer, Gail (Toulouse U, France; gail.taillefer@univ-tlse1.fr), Reading for academic purposes: the literacy practices of British, French and Spanish Law and Economics students as background for study abroad. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.4 (2005), 435–451.05–534Tardy, Christine M. (DePaul U, Chicago, USA; ctardy@depaul.edu), Expressions of disciplinarity and individuality in a multimodal genre. Computers and Composition (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 22.3 (2005), 319–336.05–535Thatcher, Barry (New Mexico State U, USA; bathatch@nmsu.edu), Situating L2 writing in global communication technologies. Computers and Composition (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 22.3 (2005), 279–295.05–536Topping, Keith & Nancy Ferguson (U of Dundee, UK; k.j.topping@dundee.ac.uk), Effective literacy teaching behaviours. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.2 (2005), 125–143.05–537Torgerson, Carole (U of York, UK; cjt3@york.ac.uk), Jill Porthouse & Greg Brooks, A systematic review of controlled trials evaluating interventions in adult literacy and numeracy. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.2 (2005), 87–107.05–538Willett, Rebekah (U of London, UK; r.willett@ioe.ac.uk), ‘Baddies’ in the classroom: media education and narrative writing. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.3 (2005), 142–148.05–539Wood, Clara, Karen Littleton & Pav Chera (Coventry U, UK; c.wood@coventry.ac.uk), Beginning readers' use of talking books: styles of working. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.3 (2005), 135–141.05–540Wood, Clare (The Open U, UK; c.p.wood@open.ac.uk), Beginning readers' use of ‘talking books’ software can affect their reading strategies. Journal of Research in Reading (Oxford, UK) 28.2 (2005), 170–182.05–541Yasuda, Sachiko (Waseda U, Japan), Different activities in the same task: an activity theory approach to ESL students' writing process. JALT Journal (Tokyo, Japan) 27.2 (2005), 139–168.05–542Zelniker, Tamar (Tel-Aviv U, Israel) & Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitz, School–Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) in the city of Acre: promoting Arab and Jewish parents' role as facilitators of children's literacy development and as agents of coexistence. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK) 18.1 (2005), 114–138.

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"Language learning." Language Teaching 36, no.3 (July 2003): 202–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444803221959.

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03–438 Appel, Christine (Dublin City U., Ireland; Email: christine.appel@dcu.ie) and Mullen, Tony (U. of Groningen, The Netherlands). A new tool for teachers and researchers involved in e-mail tandem language learning. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 14, 2 (2002), 195–208.03–439 Atlan, Janet (IUT – Université Nancy 2, France; Email: janet.atlan@univ-nancy2.fr). La recherche sur les stratégies d'apprentissage appliquée à l'apprentissage des langues. [Learning strategies research applied to language learning.] Stratégies d'apprentissage (Toulouse, France), 12 (2003), 1–32.03–440 Aviezer, Ora (Oranim Teachers College & U. of Haifa, Israel; Email: aviezer@research.haifa.ac.il). Bedtime talk of three-year-olds: collaborative repair of miscommunication. First Language (Bucks., UK), 23, 1 (2003), 117–139.03–441 Block, David (Institute of Education, University of London). Destabilized identities and cosmopolitanism across language and cultural borders: two case studies. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics. (Hong Kong, China), 7, 2 (2002), 1–19.03–442 Brantmeier, Cindy (Washington U., USA). Does gender make a difference? Passage content and comprehension in second language reading. Reading in a Foreign Language (Hawaii, USA), 15, 1 (2003), 1–27.03–443 Cameron, L. (University of Leeds, UK; Email: L.J.Cameron@education.leeds.ac.uk). Challenges for ELT from the expansion in teaching children. ELT Journal, 57, 2 (2003), 105–112.03–444 Carter, Beverley-Anne (University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago). Helping learners come of age: learner autonomy in a Caribbean context. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics (Hong Kong, China), 7, 2 (2002), 20–38.03–445 Cenos, Jasone (U. del País Vasco, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; Email: fipceirj@vc.ehu.es). Facteurs déterminant l'acquisition d'une L3: âge, développement cognitive et milieu. [Factors determining the acquisition of an L3: age, cognitive development and environment.] Aile 18, 2002, 37–51.03–446 Chini, Danielle (Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, France). La situation d'apprentissage: d'un lieu externe à un espace interne. [Learning situation: from external to internal space.] Anglais de Specialité37–38 (2002), 95–108.03–447 Condon, Nora and Kelly, Peter (U. Namur, Belgium). Does cognitive linguistics have anything to offer English language learners in their efforts to master phrasal verbs?ITL Review of Applied Linguistics (Leuven, Belgium), 137–138 (2002), 205–231.03–448 Crawford Camiciottoli, Belinda (Florence U., Italy). Metadiscourse and ESP reading comprehension: An exploratory study. Reading in a Foreign Language (Hawaii, USA), 15, 1 (2003), 28–44.03–449 Dykstra-Pruim, Pennylyn (Calvin College, Michigan, USA). Speaking, Writing, and Explicit Rule Knowledge: Toward an Understanding of How They Interrelate. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA), 36, 1 (2003), 66–75.03–450 Giguère, Jacinthe, Giasson, Jocelyne and Simard, Claude (Université Laval, Canada; Email: jacinthegiguere@hotmail.com). Les relations entre la lecture et l'écriture: Représentations d'élèves de différents niveaux scolaires et de différents niveaux d'habilité. [Relationships between reading and writing: The perceptions of students of different grade levels and different ability levels.] The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics (Canada), 5, 1–2 (2003), 23–50.03–451 Gregersen, Tammy S. (Northern Iowa U., USA). To Err is Human: A Reminder to Teachers of Language-Anxious Students. Foreign Language Annals (New York, USA), 36, 1 (2003), 25–32.03–452 Haznedar, Belma (Bounaziçi U., Turkey; Email: haznedab@boun.edu.tr). The status of functional categories in child second language acquisition: evidence from the acquisition of CP.Second Language Research (London, UK), 19, 1 (2003), 1–41.03–453 Hesling, Isabelle (Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, France). L'hémisphère cérébral droit: un atout en anglais de spécialité. [The right brain hemisphere: an advantage in specialised English.] Anglais de Specialité, 37–38 (2002), 121–140.03–454 Hilton, Heather (Université de Savoie). Modèles de l'acquisition lexicale en L2: où en sommes-nous? [Models of lexical acquisition for L2: where are we?] Anglais de Spécialité (Bordeaux, France), 35–36 (2000), 201–217.03–455 Iwash*ta, Noriko (Melbourne U., Australia; Email: norikoi@unimelb.edu.au). Negative feedback and positive evidence in task-based interaction. Differential effects on L2 development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK), 25 (2003), 1–36.03–456 Johnson, Sharon P. and English, Kathryn (Virginia State U., USA). Images, myths, and realities across cultures. The French Review (Carbondale, IL, USA), 76, 3 (2003), 492–505.03–457 Kobayashi, Masaki (U. of British Columbia, Canada). The role of peer support in ESL students' accomplishment of oral academic tasks. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 59, 3 (2003), 337–368.03–458 Lam, Agnes (University of Hong Kong). Language policy and learning experience in China: Six case histories. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics (Hong Kong, China), 7, 2 (2002), 57–72.03–459 Laufer, Batia (U. of Haifa, Israel; Email: batialau@research.haifa.ac.il). Vocabulary acquisition in a second language: do learners really acquire most vocabulary by reading? Some empirical evidence. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Ccanadienne des Langues Vivantes, 59, 4 (2003), 567–587.03–460 Lavoie, Natalie (Université du Québec à Rimouski, Email: natalie_lavoie@uqar.qc.ca). Les conceptions des parents de scripteurs débutants relativement à l'apprentissage de l'écriture. [The perceptions of beginner writers' parents relating to the process of learning to write.] The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics (Canada), 5, 1–2 (2003), 51–64.03–461 Leeman, Jennifer (George Mason U., Fairfax, USA; Email: jleeman@gmu.edu). Recasts and second language development: beyond negative evidence. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK), 25 (2003), 37–63.03–462 Loucky, John Paul (Seinan Women's U., Japan) Improving access to target vocabulary using computerized bilingual dictionaries. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 14, 2 (2002), 293–312.03–463 MacIntyre, Peter D. (U. College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Canada; Email: petermacintyre@uccb.ca), Baker, Susan C., Clément, Richard and Donovan, Leslie A. Talking in order to learn: willingness to communicate and intensive language programs. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 59, 4 (2003), 589–607.03–464 McAlpine, Janice and Myles, Johanne (Queens U., Ontario, Canada; Email: jm27@post.queensu.ca). Capturing phraseology in an online dictionary for advanced users of English as a second language: a response to user needs. System (Oxford, UK), 31, 1 (2003), 71–84.03–465 Mennim, P. (The University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK). Rehearsed oral L2 output and reactive focus on form. ELT Journal, 57, 2 (2003), 130–138.03–466 Muñoz, Carmen (U. of Barcelona, Spain; Email: munoz@fil.ub.es). Le rythme d'acquisition des savoirs communicationnels chez des apprenants guidés: l'influence de l'âge. [Patterns of acquisition of communication skills in guided learning: the influence of age.] Aile, 18 (2002), 53–77.03–467 Newcombe, Lynda Pritchard (Cardiff University, Wales, UK). “A tough hill to climb alone” – Welsh learners speak. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics (Hong Kong, China), 7, 2 (2002), 39–56.03–468 Newman, Michael, Trenchs-Parera, Mireia and Pujol, Mercè (CUNY, USA; Email: mnewman@qc.edu). Core academic literacy principles versus culture-specific practices: a multi-case study of academic achievement. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, NE), 22, 1 (2003), 45–71.03–469 Nsangou, Maryse. Problemursachen und Problemlösung in der zweitsprachlichen Kommunikation. [Problems in L2 communication: causes and solutions.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache, 39, 4 (2002), 232–237.03–470 O'Grady, William (U. of Hawaii, USA; Email: ogrady@hawaii.edu) and Yamash*ta, Yoshie. Partial agreement in second-language acquisition. Linguistics (Berlin, Germany), 40, 5 (2002), 1011–1019.03–471 Payne, J. Scott (Middlebury College, USA) and Whitney, Paul J. Developing L2 Oral Proficiency through Synchronous CMC: Output, Working Memory, and Interlanguage Development. CALICO Journal (Texas, USA), 20, 1 (2002), 7–32.03–472 Pekarek Doehler, Simona (U. of Basle, Switzerland). Situer l'acquisition des langues secondes dans les activités sociales: l'apport d'une perspective interactionniste. [Second-language acquisition through social activities: an interactionist perspective.] Babylonia (Comano, Switzerland), 4 (2002), 24–29.03–473 Philp, Jenefer (U. of Tasmania, Australia; Email: philos@tassie.net.au). Constraints on “noticing the gap”. Nonnative speakers' noticing of recasts in NS-NNS interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK), 25 (2003), 99–126.03–474 Prévost, Philippe (U. Laval, Québec, Canada; Email: philippe.prevost@lli.ulaval.ca). Truncation and missing inflection in initial child L2 German. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK), 25 (2003), 65–97.03–475 Pujolá, Joan-Tomás (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain). CALLing for help: researching language learning strategies using help facilities in a web-based multimedia program. ReCALL (Cambridge, UK), 14, 2 (2002), 235–62.03–476 Rees, David (Institut National d'Horticulture d'Angers, France). Role change in interactive learning environments. Stratégies d'apprentissage (Toulouse, France), 12 (2003), 67–75.03–477 Rehner, Katherine, Mougeon, Raymond (York U., Toronto, Canada; Email: krehner@yorku.ca) and Nadasdi, Terry. The learning of sociolinguistic variation by advanced FSL learners. The case ofnousversusonin immersion French. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK), 25 (2003), 127–156.03–478 Richter, Regina. Konstruktivistiche Lern- und Mediendesign-Theorie und ihre Umsetzung in multimedialen Sprachlernprogrammen. [Constructivist learning- and media-design theory and its application in multimedia language-learning programmes.] Deutsch als Fremdsprache, 39, 4 (2002), 201–206.03–479 Rinder, Ann. Das konstruktivistische Lernparadigma und die neuen Medien. [The constructivist learning paradigm and the new media.] Info DaF (Munich, Germany), 30, 1 (2003), 3–22.03–480 Rott, Susanne and Williams, Jessica (U. of Chicago at Illinois, USA). Making form-meaning connections while reading: A qualitative analysis of word processing. Reading in a Foreign Language (Hawaii, USA), 15, 1 (2003), 45–75.03–481 Shinichi, Izumi (Sophia U., Japan; Email: s-izumi@hoffman.cc.sophia.ac.jp). Output, input enhancement, and the noticing hypothesis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Cambridge, UK), 24, 4 (2002), 541–577.03–482 Sifakis, N. C. (Hellenic Open U., Greece; Email: nicossif@hol.gr). Applying the adult education framework to ESP curriculum development: an integrative model. English for Specific Purposes (Amsterdam, NE), 22, 1 (2003), 195–211.03–483 Slabakova, Roumyana (U. of Iowa, USA; Email: roumyana-slabakova@uiowa.edu). Semantic evidence for functional categories in interlanguage grammars. Second Language Research (London, UK), 19, 1 (2003), 42–75.03–484 Soboleva, Olga and Tronenko, Natalia (LSE, UK; Email: O.Sobolev@lse.ac.uk). A Russian multimedia learning package for classroom use and self-study. Computer Assisted Language Learning (Lisse, NE), 15, 5 (2002), 483–499.03–485 Stockwell, Glenn (Kumamoto Gakuen U., Japan) and Harrington, Michael. The Incidental Development of L2 Proficiency in NS-NNS E-mail Interactions. CALICO Journal (Texas, USA), 20, 2 (2003), 337–359.03–486 Van de Craats, Ineke (Nijmegen U., Netherlands). The role of the mother tongue in second language learning. Babylonia (Comano, Switzerland), 4 (2002), 19–22.03–487 Vidal, K. (U. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain). Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?Applied Linguistics, 24, 1 (2003), 56–89.03–488 Wakabayashi, Shigenori (Gunma Prefectural Women's U., Japan; Email: waka@gpwu.ac.jp). 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Uychoco,DionisioM. "Academic Reading Proficiency of Freshmen in the College of Education of DMMMSU-SLUC: Input to the Design of Instructional Modules for English 101." JPAIR Multidisciplinary Research 9, no.1 (August4, 2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.7719/jpair.v9i1.17.

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The study described the academic reading proficiency level of incoming college freshmen which served as an input to the design of learning modules. It used a validated 50-item researchermade test and two sets of questionnaires to determine the adequacy of learning activities and the extent of utilization of academic reading strategies by content area teachers. The research found the studentrespondents unprepared for college work given the moderate academic reading proficiency index. Concerned language and content area teachers failed to provide enough learning activities and sufficient opportunity and training in the use of academic reading strategies that will enhance students’ level of proficiency in content area reading. It is recommended that topics designed to develop academic reading skills of senior high school students be included in the course content in secondary schools; that English teachers provide more learning activities and experiences expected in content area reading; and that content area teachers become active reading teachers by facilitating comprehension through the use of time-tested academic reading strategies. Keywords - academic reading strategies, proficiency test, content area reading, instructional materials

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Niyibizi, Epimaque, Emmanuel Sibomana, and Juliet Perumal. "Learning to teach writing through a distance education programme: Experiences of Rwandan secondary school English teachers." Reading & Writing 10, no.1 (May7, 2019). http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/rw.v10i1.206.

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Background: Writing is among the most important skills, and globally it has received more emphasis in literature on language teaching than reading, speaking and listening. However, a paucity of studies is observed in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in contexts where English is being taught as an additional or foreign language, as is the case in Rwanda. Research shows that learners who can write well in different genres and for different purposes tend to do well in all curriculum subjects and subsequently beyond school education. The key challenges are the inadequacy of materials and teachers’ inability to teach writing well, especially through distance education programmes.Objectives: This study investigates the effectiveness of materials used at the University of Rwanda-College of Education’s Distance Education programme to train high school teachers on writing pedagogy for English teaching.Method: The study adopted a qualitative approach to report on the findings from textual, document analysis of distance education materials, argumentative essays and focus group discussions with 80 of 599 in-service teachers, who responded to designed and redesigned sections on writing pedagogy.Results: The findings indicate that teachers’ knowledge and skills in both writing and writing pedagogy are not addressed effectively by the materials designed. This negatively affected the quality of their own writing abilities and those of their students.Conclusion: The article recommends reconceptualisation of distance education materials to equip in-service teachers with propositional knowledge and procedural knowledge on writing pedagogy.

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"Language learning." Language Teaching 40, no.1 (January 2007): 49–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s026144480622411x.

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"Reading and writing." Language Teaching 38, no.3 (July 2005): 132–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805232998.

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05–267Aitchison, Claire (U of Western Sydney, Australia), Thesis writing circles. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics (Hong Kong, China) 8.2 (2003), 97–115.05–268Allison, Desmond (The National U of Singapore), Authority and accommodation in higher degree research proposals. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics (Hong Kong, China) 8.2 (2003), 155–180.05–269Bazerman, Charles (U of California, Santa Barbara, USA), An essay on pedagogy by Mikhail M. Bakhtin. Written Communication (Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) 22.3 (2005), 333–338.05–270Belanger, Joe (U of British Columbia, USA), ‘When will we ever learn?’: the case for formative assessment supporting writing development. English in Australia (Norwood, Australia) 141 (2004), 41–48.05–271Bodwell, Mary Buchinger (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, USA; mary.bodwell@bos.mcphs.edu), ‘Now what does that mean, “first draft”?’: responding to text in an adult literacy class. 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"Language learning." Language Teaching 40, no.2 (March7, 2007): 141–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444807224280.

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"Teacher education." Language Teaching 38, no.4 (October 2005): 211–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0261444805243148.

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05–466Cheng Pui-Wah, Doris (Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, China; doris@ied.edu.hk) & Philip Stimpson, Articulating contrasts in kindergarten teachers' implicit knowledge on play-based learning. International Journal of Educational Research (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 41.4–5 (2005), 339–352.05–467Collins, Fiona M. (Roehampton U, London, UK; f.collins@roehampton.ac.uk), ‘She's sort of dragging me into the story!’ Student teachers' experiences of reading aloud in Key Stage 2 classes. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.1 (2005), 10–17.05–468Fischl, Dita (Kaye College for Teacher Education, Israel) & Shifra Sagy, Beliefs about teaching, teachers and schools among pre-service teachers: the case of Israeli-Bedouin students. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK) 18.1 (2005), 59–71.05–469Gamliel, Eyal & Liema Davidovitz (Ruppin Academic Center, Israel; eyalg@ruppin.ac.il), Online versus traditional teaching evaluation: mode can matter. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (Abingdon, UK) 30.6 (2005), 581–592.05–470Gebhard, Jerry G. (Indiana U of Pennsylvania, USA), Awareness of teaching through action research: examples, benefits, limitations. JALT Journal (Tokyo, Japan) 27.1 (2005), 53–69.05–471Gillies, Robyn M. (U of Queensland, Australia; r.gillies@uq.edu.au), The effects of communication training on teachers' and students' verbal behaviours during cooperative learning. International Journal of Educational Research (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 41.3 (2005), 257–279.05–472Grugeon, Elizabeth (De Montfort U, Bedford, UK; egrugeon@dmu.ac.uk), Listening to learning outside the classroom: student teachers study playground literacies. Literacy (Oxford, UK) 39.1 (2005), 3–9.05–473Harfitt, Gary & Nicole Tavares (U of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; gharfitt@hkucc.hku.hk), Obstacles as opportunities in the promotion of teachers' learning. International Journal of Educational Research (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 41.4–5 (2005), 353–366.05–474Hosie, Peter (Curtin U of Technology, Australia; Peter.Hosie@cbs.curtin.edu.au), Renato Schibeci & Ann Backhaus, A framework and checklists for evaluating online learning in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (Abingdon, UK) 30.5 (2005), 539–553.05–475Katyal, Kokila & Colin Evers (U of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; kkatyal@hkusua.hku.hk), Teacher leadership and autonomous student learning: adjusting to the new realities. International Journal of Educational Research (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 41.4–5 (2005), 367–382.05–476Kwo, Ora W. Y. (U of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; wykwo@hku.hk), Understanding the awakening spirit of a professional teaching force. International Journal of Educational Research (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 41.4–5 (2005), 292–306.05–477Lewis, Ramon (La Trobe U, Melbourne, Australia), Shlomo Romi, Xing Qui & Yaacov J. Katz, Teachers' classroom discipline and student misbehavior in Australia, China and Israel. Teaching and Teacher Education21.6 (2005), 729–741.05–478Ogier, John (U of Canterbury, New Zealand; john.ogier@canterbury.ac.nz), Evaluating the effect of a lecturer's language background on a student rating of teaching form. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (Abingdon, UK) 30.5 (2005), 477–488.05–479Orland-Barak, Lily (The U of Haifa, Israel) & Hayuta Yinon, Different but similar: student teachers' perspectives on the use of L1 in Arab and Jewish EFL classroom settings. Language, Culture and Curriculum (Clevedon, UK) 18.1 (2005), 91–113.05–480Pearson, Sue (Leeds U, UK; S.E.Pearson@education.leeds.ac.uk) & Gary Chambers, A successful recipe? Aspects of the initial training of secondary teachers of foreign languages. Support for Learning (Oxford, UK) 20.3 (2005), 115–122.05–481Perry, Bill & Timothy Stewart (Kumamoto U, Japan; perry@kumamoto-u.ac.jp), Insights into effective partnership in interdisciplinary team teaching. System (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 33.4 (2005), 563–573.05–482Ricketts, Chris (Plymouth U, UK; C.Ricketts@plymouth.ac.uk) & Stan Zakrzewski, A risk-analysis approach to implementing web-based assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education (Abingdon, UK) 30.6 (2005), 603–620.05–483Tajino, Akira (Kyoto U, Japan) & Craig Smith, Exploratory practice and Soft Systems Methodology. Language Teaching Research (London, UK) 9.4 (2005), 448–469.05–484Wu, Zongjie (Zhejiang U, China; zongjiewu@zju.edu.cn), Being, understanding and naming: teachers' life and work in harmony. International Journal of Educational Research (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 41.4–5 (2005), 307–323.05–485Zeegers, Margaret (U of Ballarat, Australia), English community school teacher education and English as a second language in Papua New Guinea: a study of a practicum. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education (London, UK) 33.2 (2005), 135–146.

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Holleran, Samuel. "Better in Pictures." M/C Journal 24, no.4 (August19, 2021). http://dx.doi.org/10.5204/mcj.2810.

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While the term “visual literacy” has grown in popularity in the last 50 years, its meaning remains nebulous. It is described variously as: a vehicle for aesthetic appreciation, a means of defence against visual manipulation, a sorting mechanism for an increasingly data-saturated age, and a prerequisite to civic inclusion (Fransecky 23; Messaris 181; McTigue and Flowers 580). Scholars have written extensively about the first three subjects but there has been less research on how visual literacy frames civic life and how it might help the public as a tool to address disadvantage and assist in removing social and cultural barriers. This article examines a forerunner to visual literacy in the push to create an international symbol language born out of popular education movements, a project that fell short of its goals but still left a considerable impression on graphic media. This article, then, presents an analysis of visual literacy campaigns in the early postwar era. These campaigns did not attempt to invent a symbolic language but posited that images themselves served as a universal language in which students could receive training. Of particular interest is how the concept of visual literacy has been mobilised as a pedagogical tool in design, digital humanities and in broader civic education initiatives promoted by Third Space institutions. Behind the creation of new visual literacy curricula is the idea that images can help anchor a world community, supplementing textual communication. Figure 1: Visual Literacy Yearbook. Montebello Unified School District, USA, 1973. Shedding Light: Origins of the Visual Literacy Frame The term “visual literacy” came to the fore in the early 1970s on the heels of mass literacy campaigns. The educators, creatives and media theorists who first advocated for visual learning linked this aim to literacy, an unassailable goal, to promote a more radical curricular overhaul. They challenged a system that had hitherto only acknowledged a very limited pathway towards academic success; pushing “language and mathematics”, courses “referred to as solids (something substantial) as contrasted with liquids or gases (courses with little or no substance)” (Eisner 92). This was deemed “a parochial view of both human ability and the possibilities of education” that did not acknowledge multiple forms of intelligence (Gardner). This change not only integrated elements of mass culture that had been rejected in education, notably film and graphic arts, but also encouraged the critique of images as a form of good citizenship, assuming that visually literate arbiters could call out media misrepresentations and manipulative political advertising (Messaris, “Visual Test”). This movement was, in many ways, reactive to new forms of mass media that began to replace newspapers as key forms of civic participation. Unlike simple literacy (being able to decipher letters as a mnemonic system), visual literacy involves imputing meanings to images where meanings are less fixed, yet still with embedded cultural signifiers. Visual literacy promised to extend enlightenment metaphors of sight (as in the German Aufklärung) and illumination (as in the French Lumières) to help citizens understand an increasingly complex marketplace of images. The move towards visual literacy was not so much a shift towards images (and away from books and oration) but an affirmation of the need to critically investigate the visual sphere. It introduced doubt to previously upheld hierarchies of perception. Sight, to Kant the “noblest of the senses” (158), was no longer the sense “least affected” by the surrounding world but an input centre that was equally manipulable. In Kant’s view of societal development, the “cosmopolitan” held the key to pacifying bellicose states and ensuring global prosperity and tranquillity. The process of developing a cosmopolitan ideology rests, according to Kant, on the gradual elimination of war and “the education of young people in intellectual and moral culture” (188-89). Transforming disparate societies into “a universal cosmopolitan existence” that would “at last be realised as the matrix within which all the original capacities of the human race may develop” and would take well-funded educational institutions and, potentially, a new framework for imparting knowledge (Kant 51). To some, the world of the visual presented a baseline for shared experience. Figure 2: Exhibition by the Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum in Vienna, photograph c. 1927. An International Picture Language The quest to find a mutually intelligible language that could “bridge worlds” and solder together all of humankind goes back to the late nineteenth century and the Esperanto movement of Ludwig Zamenhof (Schor 59). The expression of this ideal in the world of the visual picked up steam in the interwar years with designers and editors like Fritz Kahn, Gerd Arntz, and Otto and Marie Neurath. Their work transposing complex ideas into graphic form has been rediscovered as an antecedent to modern infographics, but the symbols they deployed were not to merely explain, but also help education and build international fellowship unbounded by spoken language. The Neuraths in particular are celebrated for their international picture language or Isotypes. These pictograms (sometimes viewed as proto-emojis) can be used to represent data without text. Taken together they are an “intemporal, hieroglyphic language” that Neutrath hoped would unite working-class people the world over (Lee 159). The Neuraths’ work was done in the explicit service of visual education with a popular socialist agenda and incubated in the social sphere of Red Vienna at the Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum (Social and Economic Museum) where Otto served as Director. The Wirtschaftsmuseum was an experiment in popular education, with multiple branches and late opening hours to accommodate the “the working man [who] has time to see a museum only at night” (Neurath 72-73). The Isotype contained universalist aspirations for the “making of a world language, or a helping picture language—[that] will give support to international developments generally” and “educate by the eye” (Neurath 13). Figure 3: Gerd Arntz Isotype Images. (Source: University of Reading.) The Isotype was widely adopted in the postwar era in pre-packaged sets of symbols used in graphic design and wayfinding systems for buildings and transportation networks, but with the socialism of the Neuraths’ peeled away, leaving only the system of logos that we are familiar with from airport washrooms, charts, and public transport maps. Much of the uptake in this symbol language could be traced to increased mobility and tourism, particularly in countries that did not make use of a Roman alphabet. The 1964 Olympics in Tokyo helped pave the way when organisers, fearful of jumbling too many scripts together, opted instead for black and white icons to represent the program of sports that summer. The new focus on the visual was both technologically mediated—cheaper printing and broadcast technologies made the diffusion of image increasingly possible—but also ideologically supported by a growing emphasis on projects that transcended linguistic, ethnic, and national borders. The Olympic symbols gradually morphed into Letraset icons, and, later, symbols in the Unicode Standard, which are the basis for today’s emojis. Wordless signs helped facilitate interconnectedness, but only in the most literal sense; their application was limited primarily to sports mega-events, highway maps, and “brand building”, and they never fulfilled their role as an educational language “to give the different nations a common outlook” (Neurath 18). Universally understood icons, particularly in the form of emojis, point to a rise in visual communication but they have fallen short as a cosmopolitan project, supporting neither the globalisation of Kantian ethics nor the transnational socialism of the Neuraths. Figure 4: Symbols in use. Women's bathroom. 1964 Tokyo Olympics. (Source: The official report of the Organizing Committee.) Counter Education By mid-century, the optimism of a universal symbol language seemed dated, and focus shifted from distillation to discernment. New educational programs presented ways to study images, increasingly reproducible with new technologies, as a language in and of themselves. These methods had their roots in the fin-de-siècle educational reforms of John Dewey, Helen Parkhurst, and Maria Montessori. As early as the 1920s, progressive educators were using highly visual magazines, like National Geographic, as the basis for lesson planning, with the hopes that they would “expose students to edifying and culturally enriching reading” and “develop a more catholic taste or sensibility, representing an important cosmopolitan value” (Hawkins 45). The rise in imagery from previously inaccessible regions helped pupils to see themselves in relation to the larger world (although this connection always came with the presumed superiority of the reader). “Pictorial education in public schools” taught readers—through images—to accept a broader world but, too often, they saw photographs as a “straightforward transcription of the real world” (Hawkins 57). The images of cultures and events presented in Life and National Geographic for the purposes of education and enrichment were now the subject of greater analysis in the classroom, not just as “windows into new worlds” but as cultural products in and of themselves. The emerging visual curriculum aimed to do more than just teach with previously excluded modes (photography, film and comics); it would investigate how images presented and mediated the world. This gained wider appeal with new analytical writing on film, like Raymond Spottiswoode's Grammar of the Film (1950) which sought to formulate the grammatical rules of visual communication (Messaris 181), influenced by semiotics and structural linguistics; the emphasis on grammar can also be seen in far earlier writings on design systems such as Owen Jones’s 1856 The Grammar of Ornament, which also advocated for new, universalising methods in design education (Sloboda 228). The inventorying impulse is on display in books like Donis A. Dondis’s A Primer of Visual Literacy (1973), a text that meditates on visual perception but also functions as an introduction to line and form in the applied arts, picking up where the Bauhaus left off. Dondis enumerates the “syntactical guidelines” of the applied arts with illustrations that are in keeping with 1920s books by Kandinsky and Klee and analyse pictorial elements. However, at the end of the book she shifts focus with two chapters that examine “messaging” and visual literacy explicitly. Dondis predicts that “an intellectual, trained ability to make and understand visual messages is becoming a vital necessity to involvement with communication. It is quite likely that visual literacy will be one of the fundamental measures of education in the last third of our century” (33) and she presses for more programs that incorporate the exploration and analysis of images in tertiary education. Figure 5: Ideal spatial environment for the Blueprint charts, 1970. (Image: Inventory Press.) Visual literacy in education arrived in earnest with a wave of publications in the mid-1970s. They offered ways for students to understand media processes and for teachers to use visual culture as an entry point into complex social and scientific subject matter, tapping into the “visual consciousness of the ‘television generation’” (Fransecky 5). Visual culture was often seen as inherently democratising, a break from stuffiness, the “artificialities of civilisation”, and the “archaic structures” that set sensorial perception apart from scholarship (Dworkin 131-132). Many radical university projects and community education initiatives of the 1960s made use of new media in novel ways: from Maurice Stein and Larry Miller’s fold-out posters accompanying Blueprint for Counter Education (1970) to Emory Douglas’s graphics for The Black Panther newspaper. Blueprint’s text- and image-dense wall charts were made via assemblage and they were imagined less as charts and more as a “matrix of resources” that could be used—and added to—by youth to undertake their own counter education (Cronin 53). These experiments in visual learning helped to break down old hierarchies in education, but their aim was influenced more by countercultural notions of disruption than the universal ideals of cosmopolitanism. From Image as Text to City as Text For a brief period in the 1970s, thinkers like Marshall McLuhan (McLuhan et al., Massage) and artists like Bruno Munari (Tanchis and Munari) collaborated fruitfully with graphic designers to create books that mixed text and image in novel ways. Using new compositional methods, they broke apart traditional printing lock-ups to superimpose photographs, twist text, and bend narrative frames. The most famous work from this era is, undoubtedly, The Medium Is the Massage (1967), McLuhan’s team-up with graphic designer Quentin Fiore, but it was followed by dozens of other books intended to communicate theory and scientific ideas with popularising graphics. Following in the footsteps of McLuhan, many of these texts sought not just to explain an issue but to self-consciously reference their own method of information delivery. These works set the precedent for visual aids (and, to a lesser extent, audio) that launched a diverse, non-hierarchical discourse that was nonetheless bound to tactile artefacts. In 1977, McLuhan helped develop a media textbook for secondary school students called City as Classroom: Understanding Language and Media. It is notable for its direct address style and its focus on investigating spaces outside of the classroom (provocatively, a section on the third page begins with “Should all schools be closed?”). The book follows with a fine-grained analysis of advertising forms in which students are asked to first bring advertisem*nts into class for analysis and later to go out into the city to explore “a man-made environment, a huge warehouse of information, a vast resource to be mined free of charge” (McLuhan et al., City 149). As a document City as Classroom is critical of existing teaching methods, in line with the radical “in the streets” pedagogy of its day. McLuhan’s theories proved particularly salient for the counter education movement, in part because they tapped into a healthy scepticism of advertisers and other image-makers. They also dovetailed with growing discontent with the ad-strew visual environment of cities in the 1970s. Budgets for advertising had mushroomed in the1960s and outdoor advertising “cluttered” cities with billboards and neon, generating “fierce intensities and new hybrid energies” that threatened to throw off the visual equilibrium (McLuhan 74). Visual literacy curricula brought in experiential learning focussed on the legibility of the cities, mapping, and the visualisation of urban issues with social justice implications. The Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute (DGEI), a “collective endeavour of community research and education” that arose in the aftermath of the 1967 uprisings, is the most storied of the groups that suffused the collection of spatial data with community engagement and organising (Warren et al. 61). The following decades would see a tamed approach to visual literacy that, while still pressing for critical reading, did not upend traditional methods of educational delivery. Figure 6: Beginning a College Program-Assisting Teachers to Develop Visual Literacy Approaches in Public School Classrooms. 1977. ERIC. Searching for Civic Education The visual literacy initiatives formed in the early 1970s both affirmed existing civil society institutions while also asserting the need to better inform the public. Most of the campaigns were sponsored by universities, major libraries, and international groups such as UNESCO, which published its “Declaration on Media Education” in 1982. They noted that “participation” was “essential to the working of a pluralistic and representative democracy” and the “public—users, citizens, individuals, groups ... were too systematically overlooked”. Here, the public is conceived as both “targets of the information and communication process” and users who “should have the last word”. To that end their “continuing education” should be ensured (Study 18). Programs consisted primarily of cognitive “see-scan-analyse” techniques (Little et al.) for younger students but some also sought to bring visual analysis to adult learners via continuing education (often through museums eager to engage more diverse audiences) and more radical popular education programs sponsored by community groups. By the mid-80s, scores of modules had been built around the comprehension of visual media and had become standard educational fare across North America, Australasia, and to a lesser extent, Europe. There was an increasing awareness of the role of data and image presentation in decision-making, as evidenced by the surprising commercial success of Edward Tufte’s 1982 book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Visual literacy—or at least image analysis—was now enmeshed in teaching practice and needed little active advocacy. Scholarly interest in the subject went into a brief period of hibernation in the 1980s and early 1990s, only to be reborn with the arrival of new media distribution technologies (CD-ROMs and then the internet) in classrooms and the widespread availability of digital imaging technology starting in the late 1990s; companies like Adobe distributed free and reduced-fee licences to schools and launched extensive teacher training programs. Visual literacy was reanimated but primarily within a circ*mscribed academic field of education and data visualisation. Figure 7: Visual Literacy; What Research Says to the Teacher, 1975. National Education Association. USA. Part of the shifting frame of visual literacy has to do with institutional imperatives, particularly in places where austerity measures forced strange alliances between disciplines. What had been a project in alternative education morphed into an uncontested part of the curriculum and a dependable budget line. This shift was already forecasted in 1972 by Harun Farocki who, writing in Filmkritik, noted that funding for new film schools would be difficult to obtain but money might be found for “training in media education … a discipline that could persuade ministers of education, that would at the same time turn the budget restrictions into an advantage, and that would match the functions of art schools” (98). Nearly 50 years later educators are still using media education (rebranded as visual or media literacy) to make the case for fine arts and humanities education. While earlier iterations of visual literacy education were often too reliant on the idea of cracking the “code” of images, they did promote ways of learning that were a deep departure from the rote methods of previous generations. Next-gen curricula frame visual literacy as largely supplemental—a resource, but not a program. By the end of the 20th century, visual literacy had changed from a scholarly interest to a standard resource in the “teacher’s toolkit”, entering into school programs and influencing museum education, corporate training, and the development of public-oriented media (Literacy). An appreciation of image culture was seen as key to creating empathetic global citizens, but its scope was increasingly limited. With rising austerity in the education sector (a shift that preceded the 2008 recession by decades in some countries), art educators, museum enrichment staff, and design researchers need to make a case for why their disciplines were relevant in pedagogical models that are increasingly aimed at “skills-based” and “job ready” teaching. Arts educators worked hard to insert their fields into learning goals for secondary students as visual literacy, with the hope that “literacy” would carry the weight of an educational imperative and not a supplementary field of study. Conclusion For nearly a century, educational initiatives have sought to inculcate a cosmopolitan perspective with a variety of teaching materials and pedagogical reference points. Symbolic languages, like the Isotype, looked to unite disparate people with shared visual forms; while educational initiatives aimed to train the eyes of students to make them more discerning citizens. The term ‘visual literacy’ emerged in the 1960s and has since been deployed in programs with a wide variety of goals. Countercultural initiatives saw it as a prerequisite for popular education from the ground up, but, in the years since, it has been formalised and brought into more staid curricula, often as a sort of shorthand for learning from media and pictures. The grand cosmopolitan vision of a complete ‘visual language’ has been scaled back considerably, but still exists in trace amounts. Processes of globalisation require images to universalise experiences, commodities, and more for people without shared languages. Emoji alphabets and globalese (brands and consumer messaging that are “visual-linguistic” amalgams “increasingly detached from any specific ethnolinguistic group or locality”) are a testament to a mediatised banal cosmopolitanism (Jaworski 231). In this sense, becoming “fluent” in global design vernacular means familiarity with firms and products, an understanding that is aesthetic, not critical. It is very much the beneficiaries of globalisation—both state and commercial actors—who have been able to harness increasingly image-based technologies for their benefit. To take a humorous but nonetheless consequential example, Spanish culinary boosters were able to successfully lobby for a paella emoji (Miller) rather than having a food symbol from a less wealthy country such as a Senegalese jollof or a Morrocan tagine. This trend has gone even further as new forms of visual communication are increasingly streamlined and managed by for-profit media platforms. The ubiquity of these forms of communication and their global reach has made visual literacy more important than ever but it has also fundamentally shifted the endeavour from a graphic sorting practice to a critical piece of social infrastructure that has tremendous political ramifications. Visual literacy campaigns hold out the promise of educating students in an image-based system with the potential to transcend linguistic and cultural boundaries. This cosmopolitan political project has not yet been realised, as the visual literacy frame has drifted into specialised silos of art, design, and digital humanities education. It can help bridge the “incomplete connections” of an increasingly globalised world (Calhoun 112), but it does not have a program in and of itself. Rather, an evolving visual literacy curriculum might be seen as a litmus test for how we imagine the role of images in the world. References Brown, Neil. “The Myth of Visual Literacy.” Australian Art Education 13.2 (1989): 28-32. Calhoun, Craig. “Cosmopolitanism in the Modern Social Imaginary.” Daedalus 137.3 (2008): 105–114. Cronin, Paul. “Recovering and Rendering Vital Blueprint for Counter Education at the California Institute for the Arts.” Blueprint for Counter Education. Inventory Press, 2016. 36-58. Dondis, Donis A. A Primer of Visual Literacy. MIT P, 1973. Dworkin, M.S. “Toward an Image Curriculum: Some Questions and Cautions.” Journal of Aesthetic Education 4.2 (1970): 129–132. Eisner, Elliot. Cognition and Curriculum: A Basis for Deciding What to Teach. Longmans, 1982. Farocki, Harun. “Film Courses in Art Schools.” Trans. Ted Fendt. Grey Room 79 (Apr. 2020): 96–99. Fransecky, Roger B. Visual Literacy: A Way to Learn—A Way to Teach. Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1972. Gardner, Howard. Frames Of Mind. Basic Books, 1983. Hawkins, Stephanie L. “Training the ‘I’ to See: Progressive Education, Visual Literacy, and National Geographic Membership.” American Iconographic. U of Virginia P, 2010. 28–61. Jaworski, Adam. “Globalese: A New Visual-Linguistic Register.” Social Semiotics 25.2 (2015): 217-35. Kant, Immanuel. Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View. Cambridge UP, 2006. Kant, Immanuel. “Perpetual Peace.” Political Writings. Ed. H. Reiss. Cambridge UP, 1991 [1795]. 116–130. Kress, G., and T. van Leeuwen. Reading images: The Grammar of Visual Design. Routledge, 1996. Literacy Teaching Toolkit: Visual Literacy. Department of Education and Training (DET), State of Victoria. 29 Aug. 2018. 30 Sep. 2020 <https://www.education.vic.gov.au:443/school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/english/literacy/ readingviewing/Pages/litfocusvisual.aspx>. Lee, Jae Young. “Otto Neurath's Isotype and the Rhetoric of Neutrality.” Visible Language 42.2: 159-180. Little, D., et al. Looking and Learning: Visual Literacy across the Disciplines. Wiley, 2015. Messaris, Paul. “Visual Literacy vs. Visual Manipulation.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 11.2: 181-203. DOI: 10.1080/15295039409366894 ———. “A Visual Test for Visual ‘Literacy.’” The Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. 31 Oct. to 3 Nov. 1991. Atlanta, GA. <https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED347604.pdf>. McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. McGraw-Hill, 1964. McLuhan, Marshall, Quentin Fiore, and Jerome Agel. The Medium Is the Massage, Bantam Books, 1967. McLuhan, Marshall, Kathryn Hutchon, and Eric McLuhan. City as Classroom: Understanding Language and Media. Agincourt, Ontario: Book Society of Canada, 1977. McTigue, Erin, and Amanda Flowers. “Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams.” Reading Teacher 64.8: 578-89. Miller, Sarah. “The Secret History of the Paella Emoji.” Food & Wine, 20 June 2017. <https://www.foodandwine.com/news/true-story-paella-emoji>. Munari, Bruno. Square, Circle, Triangle. Princeton Architectural Press, 2016. Newfield, Denise. “From Visual Literacy to Critical Visual Literacy: An Analysis of Educational Materials.” English Teaching-Practice and Critique 10 (2011): 81-94. Neurath, Otto. International Picture Language: The First Rules of Isotype. K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1936. Schor, Esther. Bridge of Words: Esperanto and the Dream of a Universal Language. Henry Holt and Company, 2016. Sloboda, Stacey. “‘The Grammar of Ornament’: Cosmopolitanism and Reform in British Design.” Journal of Design History 21.3 (2008): 223-36. Study of Communication Problems: Implementation of Resolutions 4/19 and 4/20 Adopted by the General Conference at Its Twenty-First Session; Report by the Director-General. UNESCO, 1983. Tanchis, Aldo, and Bruno Munari. Bruno Munari: Design as Art. MIT P, 1987. Warren, Gwendolyn, Cindi Katz, and Nik Heynen. “Myths, Cults, Memories, and Revisions in Radical Geographic History: Revisiting the Detroit Geographical Expedition and Institute.” Spatial Histories of Radical Geography: North America and Beyond. Wiley, 2019. 59-86.

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Haupt, Adam. "Queering Hip-Hop, Queering the City: Dope Saint Jude’s Transformative Politics." M/C Journal 19, no.4 (August31, 2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.5204/mcj.1125.

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This paper argues that artist Dope Saint Jude is transforming South African hip-hop by queering a genre that has predominantly been male and heteronormative. Specifically, I analyse the opening skit of her music video “Keep in Touch” in order to unpack the ways which she revives Gayle, a gay language that adopted double-coded forms of speech during the apartheid era—a context in which hom*osexuals were criminalised. The use of Gayle and spaces close to the city centre of Cape Town (such as Salt River and Woodstock) speaks to the city as it was before it was transformed by the decline of industries due to the country’s adoption of neoliberal economics and, more recently, by the gentrification of these spaces. Dope Saint Jude therefore reclaims these city spaces through her use of gay modes of speech that have a long history in Cape Town and by positioning her work as hip-hop, which has been popular in the city for well over two decades. Her inclusion of transgender MC and DJ Angel Ho pushes the boundaries of hegemonic and binary conceptions of gender identity even further. In essence, Dope Saint Jude is transforming local hip-hop in a context that is shaped significantly by US cultural imperialism. The artist is also transforming our perspective of spaces that have been altered by neoliberal economics.Setting the SceneDope Saint Jude (DSJ) is a queer MC from Elsies River, a working class township located on Cape Town's Cape Flats in South Africa. Elsies River was defined as a “coloured” neighbourhood under the apartheid state's Group Areas Act, which segregated South Africans racially. With the aid of the Population Registration Act, citizens were classified, not merely along the lines of white, Asian, or black—black subjects were also divided into further categories. The apartheid state also distinguished between black and “coloured” subjects. Michael MacDonald contends that segregation “ordained blacks to be inferior to whites; apartheid cast them to be indelibly different” (11). Apartheid declared “African claims in South Africa to be inferior to white claims” and effectively claimed that black subjects “belonged elsewhere, in societies of their own, because their race was different” (ibid). The term “coloured” defined people as “mixed race” to separate communities that might otherwise have identified as black in the broad and inclusive sense (Erasmus 16). Racial categorisation was used to create a racial hierarchy with white subjects at the top of that hierarchy and those classified as black receiving the least resources and benefits. This frustrated attempts to establish broad alliances of black struggles against apartheid. It is in this sense that race is socially and politically constructed and continues to have currency, despite the fact that biologically essentialist understandings of race have been discredited (Yudell 13–14). Thanks to apartheid town planning and resource allocation, many townships on the Cape Flats were poverty-stricken and plagued by gang violence (Salo 363). This continues to be the case because post-apartheid South Africa's embrace of neoliberal economics failed to address racialised class inequalities significantly (Haupt, Static 6–8). This is the '90s context in which socially conscious hip-hop crews, such as Prophets of da City or Black Noise, came together. They drew inspiration from Black Consciousness philosophy via their exposure to US hip-hop crews such as Public Enemy in order to challenge apartheid policies, including their racial interpellation as “coloured” as distinct from the more inclusive category, black (Haupt, “Black Thing” 178). Prophets of da City—whose co-founding member, Shaheen Ariefdien, also lived in Elsies River—was the first South African hip-hop outfit to record an album. Whilst much of their work was performed in English, they quickly transformed the genre by rapping in non-standard varieties of Afrikaans and by including MCs who rap in African languages (ibid). They therefore succeeded in addressing key issues related to race, language, and class disparities in relation to South Africa's transition to democracy (Haupt, “Black Thing”; Haupt, Stealing Empire). However, as is the case with mainstream US hip-hop, specifically gangsta rap (Clay 149), South African hip-hop has been largely dominated by heterosexual men. This includes the more commercial hip-hop scene, which is largely perceived to be located in Johannesburg, where male MCs like AKA and Cassper Nyovest became celebrities. However, certain female MCs have claimed the genre, notably EJ von Lyrik and Burni Aman who are formerly of Godessa, the first female hip-hop crew to record and perform locally and internationally (Haupt, Stealing Empire 166; Haupt, “Can a Woman in Hip-Hop”). DSJ therefore presents the exception to a largely heteronormative and male-dominated South African music industry and hip-hop scene as she transforms it with her queer politics. While queer hip-hop is not new in the US (Pabón and Smalls), this is new territory for South Africa. Writing about the US MC Jean Grae in the context of a “male-dominated music industry and genre,” Shanté Paradigm Smalls contends,Heteronormativity blocks the materiality of the experiences of Black people. Yet, many Black people strive for a heteronormative effect if not “reality”. In hip hop, there is a particular emphasis on maintaining the rigidity of categories, even if those categories fail [sic]. (87) DSJ challenges these rigid categories. Keep in TouchDSJ's most visible entry onto the media landscape to date has been her appearance in an H&M recycling campaign with British Sri Lankan artist MIA (H&M), some fashion shoots, her new EP—Reimagine (Dope Saint Jude)—and recent Finnish, US and French tours as well as her YouTube channel, which features her music videos. As the characters’ theatrical costumes suggest, “Keep in Touch” is possibly the most camp and playful music video she has produced. It commences somewhat comically with Dope Saint Jude walking down Salt River main road to a public telephone, where she and a young woman in pig tails exchange dirty looks. Salt River is located at the foot of Devil's Peak not far from Cape Town's CBD. Many factories were located there, but the area is also surrounded by low-income housing, which was designated a “coloured” area under apartheid. After apartheid, neighbourhoods such as Salt River, Woodstock, and the Bo-Kaap became increasingly gentrified and, instead of becoming more inclusive, many parts of Cape Town continued to be influenced by policies that enable racialised inequalities. Dope Saint Jude calls Angel Ho: DSJ: Awêh, Angie! Yoh, you must check this kak sturvy girl here by the pay phone. [Turns to the girl, who walks away as she bursts a chewing gum bubble.] Ja, you better keep in touch. Anyway, listen here, what are you wys?Angel Ho: Ah, just at the salon getting my hair did. What's good? DSJ: Wanna catch on kak today?Angel Ho: Yes, honey. But, first, let me Gayle you this. By the jol by the art gallery, this Wendy, nuh. This Wendy tapped me on the shoulder and wys me, “This is a place of decorum.”DSJ: What did she wys?Angel Ho: De-corum. She basically told me this is not your house. DSJ: I know you told that girl to keep in touch!Angel Ho: Yes, Mama! I'm Paula, I told that bitch, “Keep in touch!” [Points index finger in the air.](Saint Jude, Dope, “Keep in Touch”)Angel Ho's name is a play on the male name Angelo and refers to the trope of the ho (whor*) in gangsta rap lyrics and in music videos that present objectified women as secondary to male, heterosexual narratives (Sharpley-Whiting 23; Collins 27). The queering of Angelo, along with Angel Ho’s non-binary styling in terms of hair, make-up, and attire, appropriates a heterosexist, sexualised stereotype of women in order to create room for a gender identity that operates beyond heteronormative male-female binaries. Angel Ho’s location in a hair salon also speaks to stereotypical associations of salons with women and gay subjects. In a discussion of gender stereotypes about hair salons, Kristen Barber argues that beauty work has traditionally been “associated with women and with gay men” and that “the body beautiful has been tightly linked to the concept of femininity” (455–56). During the telephonic exchange, Angel Ho and Dope Saint Jude code-switch between standard and non-standard varieties of English and Afrikaans, as the opening appellation, “Awêh,” suggests. In this context, the term is a friendly greeting, which intimates solidarity. “Sturvy” means pretentious, whilst “kak” means sh*t, but here it is used to qualify “sturvy” and means that the girl at the pay phone is very pretentious or “full of airs.” To be “wys” means to be wise, but it can also mean that you are showing someone something or educating them. The meanings of these terms shift, depending on the context. The language practices in this skit are in line with the work of earlier hip-hop crews, such as Prophets of da City and Brasse vannie Kaap, to validate black, multilingual forms of speech and expression that challenge the linguistic imperialism of standard English and Afrikaans in South Africa, which has eleven official languages (Haupt, “Black Thing”; Haupt, Stealing Empire; Williams). Henry Louis Gates’s research on African American speech varieties and literary practices emerging from the repressive context of slavery is essential to understanding hip-hop’s language politics. Hip-hop artists' multilingual wordplay creates parallel discursive universes that operate both on the syntagmatic axis of meaning-making and the paradigmatic axis (Gates 49; Haupt, “Stealing Empire” 76–77). Historically, these discursive universes were those of the slave masters and the slaves, respectively. While white hegemonic meanings are produced on the syntagmatic axis (which is ordered and linear), black modes of speech as seen in hip-hop word play operate on the paradigmatic axis, which is connotative and non-linear (ibid). Distinguishing between Signifyin(g) / Signification (upper case, meaning black expression) and signification (lower case, meaning white dominant expression), he argues that “the signifier ‘Signification’ has remained identical in spelling to its white counterpart to demonstrate [. . .] that a simultaneous, but negated, parallel discursive (ontological, political) universe exists within the larger white discursive universe” (Gates 49). The meanings of terms and expressions can change, depending on the context and manner in which they are used. It is therefore the shared experiences of speech communities (such as slavery or racist/sexist oppression) that determine the negotiated meanings of certain forms of expression. Gayle as a Parallel Discursive UniverseDSJ and Angel Ho's performance of Gayle takes these linguistic practices further. Viewers are offered points of entry into Gayle via the music video’s subtitles. We learn that Wendy is code for a white person and that to keep in touch means exactly the opposite. Saint Jude explains that Gayle is a very fun queer language that was used to kind of mask what people were saying [. . .] It hides meanings and it makes use of women's names [. . . .] But the thing about Gayle is it's constantly changing [. . .] So everywhere you go, you kind of have to pick it up according to the context that you're in. (Ovens, Saint Jude and Haupt)According to Kathryn Luyt, “Gayle originated as Moffietaal [gay language] in the coloured gay drag culture of the Western Cape as a form of slang amongst Afrikaans-speakers which over time, grew into a stylect used by gay English and Afrikaans-speakers across South Africa” (Luyt 8; Cage 4). Given that the apartheid state criminalised hom*osexuals, Gayle was coded to evade detection and to seek out other members of this speech community (Luyt 8). Luyt qualifies the term “language” by arguing, “The term ‘language’ here, is used not as a constructed language with its own grammar, syntax, morphology and phonology, but in the same way as linguists would discuss women’s language, as a way of speaking, a kind of sociolect” (Luyt 8; Cage 1). However, the double-coded nature of Gayle allows one to think of it as creating a parallel discursive universe as Gates describes it (49). Whereas African American and Cape Flats discursive practices function parallel to white, hegemonic discourses, gay modes of speech run parallel to heteronormative communication. Exclusion and MicroaggressionsThe skit brings both discursive practices into play by creating room for one to consider that DSJ queers a male-dominated genre that is shaped by US cultural imperialism (Haupt, Stealing Empire 166) as a way of speaking back to intersectional forms of marginalisation (Crenshaw 1244), which are created by “white supremacist capitalist patriarchy” (hooks 116). This is significant in South Africa where “curative rape” of lesbians and other forms of hom*ophobic violence are prominent (cf. Gqola; Hames; Msibi). Angel Ho's anecdote conveys a sense of the extent to which black individuals are subject to scrutiny. Ho's interpretation of the claim that the gallery “is a place of decorum” is correct: it is not Ho's house. Black queer subjects are not meant to feel at home or feel a sense of ownership. This functions as a racial microaggression: “subtle insults (verbal, nonverbal, and/or visual) directed toward people of color, often automatically or unconsciously” (Solorzano, Ceja, and Yosso 60). This speaks to DSJ's use of Salt River, Woodstock, and Bo-Kaap for the music video, which features black queer bodies in performance—all of these spaces are being gentrified, effectively pushing working class people of colour out of the city (cf. Didier, Morange, and Peyroux; Lemanski). Gustav Visser explains that gentrification has come to mean a unit-by-unit acquisition of housing which replaces low-income residents with high-income residents, and which occurs independent of the structural condition, architecture, tenure or original cost level of the housing (although it is usually renovated for or by the new occupiers). (81–82) In South Africa this inequity plays out along racial lines because its neoliberal economic policies created a small black elite without improving the lives of the black working class. Instead, the “new African bourgeoisie, because it shares racial identities with the bulk of the poor and class interests with white economic elites, is in position to mediate the reinforcing cleavages between rich whites and poor blacks without having to make more radical changes” (MacDonald 158). In a news article about a working class Salt River family of colour’s battle against an eviction, Christine Hogg explains, “Gentrification often means the poor are displaced as the rich move in or buildings are upgraded by new businesses. In Woodstock and Salt River both are happening at a pace.” Angel Ho’s anecdote, as told from a Woodstock hair salon, conveys a sense of what Woodstock’s transformation from a coloured, working class Group Area to an upmarket, trendy, and arty space would mean for people of colour, including black, queer subjects. One could argue that this reading of the video is undermined by DSJ’s work with global brand H&M. Was she was snared by neoliberal economics? Perhaps, but one response is that the seeds of any subculture’s commercial co-option lie in the fact it speaks through commodities (for example clothing, make-up, CDs, vinyl, or iTunes / mp3 downloads (Hebdige 95; Haupt, Stealing Empire 144–45). Subcultures have a window period in which to challenge hegemonic ideologies before they are delegitimated or commercially co-opted. Hardt and Negri contend that the means that extend the reach of corporate globalisation could be used to challenge it from within it (44–46; Haupt, Stealing Empire 26). DSJ utilises her H&M work, social media, the hip-hop genre, and international networks to exploit that window period to help mainstream black queer identity politics.ConclusionDSJ speaks back to processes of exclusion from the city, which was transformed by apartheid and, more recently, gentrification, by claiming it as a creative and playful space for queer subjects of colour. She uses Gayle to lay claim to the city as it has a long history in Cape Town. In fact, she says that she is not reviving Gayle, but is simply “putting it on a bigger platform” (Ovens, Saint Jude, and Haupt). The use of subtitles in the video suggests that she wants to mainstream queer identity politics. Saint Jude also transforms hip-hop heteronormativity by queering the genre and by locating her work within the history of Cape hip-hop’s multilingual wordplay. ReferencesBarber, Kristin. “The Well-Coiffed Man: Class, Race, and Heterosexual Masculinity in the Hair Salon.” Gender and Society 22.4 (2008): 455–76.Cage, Ken. “An Investigation into the Form and Function of Language Used by Gay Men in South Africa.” Rand Afrikaans University: MA thesis, 1999.Clay, Andreana. “‘I Used to Be Scared of the Dick’: Queer Women of Color and Hip-Hop Masculinity.” Home Girls Make Some Noise: Hip Hop Feminism Anthology. Ed. Gwendolyn D. Pough, Elain Richardson, Aisha Durham, and Rachel Raimist. California: Sojourns, 2007.Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism. New York: Routledge, 2005. Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color”. Stanford Law Review 43.6 (1991): 1241–299.Didier, Sophie, Marianne Morange, and Elisabeth Peyroux. “The Adaptative Nature of Neoliberalism at the Local Scale: Fifteen Years of City Improvement Districts in Cape Town and Johannesburg.” Antipode 45.1 (2012): 121–39.Erasmus, Zimitri. “Introduction.” Coloured by History, Shaped by Place. Ed. Zimitri Erasmus. Cape Town: Kwela Books & SA History Online, 2001. Gates, Henry Louis. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1988.Gqola, Pumla Dineo. Rape: A South African Nightmare. Johannesburg: Jacana, 2015.Hames, Mary. “Violence against Black Lesbians: Minding Our Language.” Agenda 25.4 (2011): 87–91.Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. Empire. London: Harvard UP, 2000.Haupt, Adam. “Can a Woman in Hip Hop Speak on Her Own Terms?” Africa Is a Country. 23 Mar. 2015. <http://africasacountry.com/2015/03/the-double-consciousness-of-burni-aman-can-a-woman-in-hip-hop-speak-on-her-own-terms/>.Haupt, Adam. Static: Race & Representation in Post-Apartheid Music, Media & Film. Cape Town: HSRC Press, 2012. Haupt, Adam. Stealing Empire: P2P, Intellectual Property and Hip-Hop Subversion. Cape Town: HSRC Press, 2008. Haupt, Adam. “Black Thing: Hip-Hop Nationalism, ‘Race’ and Gender in Prophets of da City and Brasse vannie Kaap.” Coloured by History, Shaped by Place. Ed. Zimitri Erasmus. Cape Town: Kwela Books & SA History Online, 2001. Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge, 1979.Hogg, Christine. “In Salt River Gentrification Often Means Eviction: Family Set to Lose Their Home of 11 Years.” Ground Up. 15 June 2016. <http://www.groundup.org.za/article/salt-river-gentrification-often-means-eviction/>.hooks, bell. Outlaw: Culture: Resisting Representations. New York: Routledge, 1994.Lemanski, Charlotte. “Hybrid Gentrification in South Africa: Theorising across Southern and Northern Cities.” Urban Studies 51.14 (2014): 2943–60.Luyt, Kathryn. “Gay Language in Cape Town: A Study of Gayle – Attitudes, History and Usage.” University of Cape Town: MA thesis, 2014.MacDonald, Michael. Why Race Matters in South Africa. University of Kwazulu-Natal Press: Scottsville, 2006.Msibi, Thabo. “Not Crossing the Line: Masculinities and hom*ophobic Violence in South Africa”. Agenda. 23.80 (2009): 50–54.Pabón, Jessica N., and Shanté Paradigm Smalls. “Critical Intimacies: Hip Hop as Queer Feminist Pedagogy.” Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory (2014): 1–7.Salo, Elaine. “Negotiating Gender and Personhood in the New South Africa: Adolescent Women and Gangsters in Manenberg Township on the Cape Flats.” Journal of European Cultural Studies 6.3 (2003): 345–65.Solórzano, Daniel, Miguel Ceja, and Tara Yosso. “Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate: The Experiences of African American College Students.” Journal of Negro Education 69.1/2 (2000): 60–73.Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean. Pimps Up, Ho’s Down: Hip Hop’s Hold on Young Black Women. New York: New York UP, 2007.Smalls, Shanté Paradigm. “‘The Rain Comes Down’: Jean Grae and Hip Hop Heteronormativity.” American Behavioral Scientist 55.1 (2011): 86–95.Visser, Gustav. “Gentrification: Prospects for Urban South African Society?” Acta Academica Supplementum 1 (2003): 79–104.Williams, Quentin E. “Youth Multilingualism in South Africa’s Hip-Hop Culture: a Metapragmatic Analysis.” Sociolinguistic Studies 10.1 (2016): 109–33.Yudell, Michael. “A Short History of the Race Concept.” Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture. Ed. Sheldon Krimsky and Kathleen Sloan. New York: Columbia UP, 2011.InterviewsOvens, Neil, Dope Saint Jude, and Adam Haupt. One FM Radio interview. Cape Town. 21 Apr. 2016.VideosSaint Jude, Dope. “Keep in Touch.” YouTube. 23 Feb. 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2ux9R839lE>. H&M. “H&M World Recycle Week Featuring M.I.A.” YouTube. 11 Apr. 2016. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7MskKkn2Jg>. MusicSaint Jude, Dope. Reimagine. 15 June 2016. <https://dopesaintjude.bandcamp.com/album/reimagine>.

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Pajka-West, Sharon. "Representations of Deafness and Deaf People in Young Adult Fiction." M/C Journal 13, no.3 (June30, 2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.5204/mcj.261.

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What began as a simple request for a book by one of my former students, at times, has not been so simple. The student, whom I refer to as Carla (name changed), hoped to read about characters similar to herself and her friends. As a teacher, I have often tried to hook my students on reading by presenting books with characters to which they can relate. These books can help increase their overall knowledge of the world, open their minds to multiple realities and variations of the human experience and provide scenarios in which they can live vicariously. Carla’s request was a bit more complicated than I had imagined. As a “Deaf” student who attended a state school for the Deaf and who viewed herself as a member of a linguistic cultural minority, she expected to read a book with characters who used American Sign Language and who participated as members within the Deaf Community. She did not want to read didactic books about deafness but wanted books with unpredictable plots and believable characters. Having graduated from a teacher-preparation program in Deaf Education, I had read numerous books about deafness. While memoirs and biographical selections had been relatively easy to acquire and were on my bookshelf, I had not once read any fictional books for adolescents that included a deaf character. (I refer to ‘Deaf’ as representing individuals who identify in a linguistic, cultural minority group. The term ‘deaf’ is used as a more generic term given to individuals with some degree of hearing loss. In other articles, ‘deaf’ has been used pejoratively or in connection to a view by those who believe one without the sense of hearing is inferior or lacking. I do not believe or wish to imply that. ) As a High School teacher with so many additional work responsibilities outside of classroom teaching, finding fictional books with deaf characters was somewhat of a challenge. Nevertheless, after some research I was able to recommend a book that I thought would be a good summer read. Nancy Butts’ Cheshire Moon (1992) is charming book about thirteen-year-old Miranda who is saddened by her cousin’s death and furious at her parents' insistence that she speak rather than sign. The plot turns slightly mystical when the teens begin having similar dreams under the “Cheshire moon”. Yet, the story is about Miranda, a deaf girl, who struggles with communication. Without her cousin, the only member of her family who was fluent in sign language, communication is difficult and embarrassing. Miranda feels isolated, alienated, and unsure of herself. Because of the main character’s age, the book was not the best recommendation for a high school student; however, when Carla finished Cheshire Moon, she asked for another book with Deaf characters. Problem & Purpose Historically, authors have used deafness as a literary device to relay various messages about the struggles of humankind and elicit sympathy from readers (Batson & Bergman; Bergman; Burns; Krentz; Panara; Taylor, "Deaf Characters" I, II, III; Schwartz; Wilding-Diaz). In recent decades, however, the general public’s awareness of and perhaps interest in deaf people has risen along with that of our increasingly multicultural world. Educational legislation has increased awareness of the deaf as has news coverage of Gallaudet University protests. In addition, Deaf people have benefited from advances in communicative technology, such as Video Relay (VRS) and instant messaging pagers, more coordinated interpreting services and an increase in awareness of American Sign Language. Authors are incorporating more deaf characters than they did in the past. However, this increase does not necessarily translate to an increase in understanding of the deaf, nor does it translate to the most accurate, respectably, well-rounded characterization of the deaf (Pajka-West, "Perceptions"). Acquiring fictional books that include deaf characters can be time-consuming and challenging for teachers and librarians. The research examining deaf characters in fiction is extremely limited (Burns; Guella; Krentz; Wilding-Diaz). The most recent articles predominately focus on children’s literature — specifically picture books (Bailes; Brittain). Despite decades of research affirming culturally authentic children’s literature and the merits of multicultural literature, a coexisting body of research reveals the lack of culturally authentic texts (Applebee; Campbell & Wirtenberg; Ernest; Larrick; Sherriff; Taxel). Moreover, children’s books with deaf characters are used as informational depictions of deaf individuals (Bockmiller, 1980). Readers of such resource books, typically parents, teachers and their students, gain information about deafness and individuals with “disabilities” (Bockmiller, 1980; Civiletto & Schirmer, 2000). If an important purpose for deaf characters in fiction is educational and informational, then there is a need for the characters to be presented as realistic models of deaf people. If not, the readers of such fiction gain inaccurate information about deafness including reinforced negative stereotypes, as can occur in any other literature portraying cultural minorities (Pajka-West, "Perceptions"). Similar to authors’ informational depictions, writers also reveal societal understanding of groups of people through their fiction (Banfield & Wilson; Panara; Rudman). Literature has often stigmatized minority culture individuals based upon race, ethnicity, disability, gender and/or sexual orientation. While readers might recognize the negative depictions and dismiss them as harmless stereotypes, these portrayals could become a part of the unconscious of members of our society. If books continually reinforce stereotypical depictions of deaf people, individuals belonging to the group might be typecast and discouraged into a limited way of being. As an educator, I want all of my students to have unlimited opportunities for the future, not disadvantaged by stereotypes. The Study For my doctoral dissertation, I examined six contemporary adolescent literature books with deaf characters. The research methodology for this study required book selection, reader sample selection, instrument creation, book analysis, questionnaire creation, and data analysis. My research questions included: 1) Are deaf characters being presented as culturally Deaf characters or as pathologically deaf and disabled; 2) Do these readers favor deaf authors over hearing ones? If so, why; and, 3) How do deaf and hearing adult readers perceive deaf characters in adolescent literature? The Sample The book sample included 102 possible books for the study ranging from adolescent to adult selections. I selected books that were recognized as suitable for middle school or high school readers based upon the reading and interest levels established by publishers. The books also had to include main characters who are deaf and deaf characters who are human. The books selected were all realistic fiction, available to the public, and published or reissued for publication within the last fifteen years. The six books that were selected included: Nick’s Secret by C. Blatchford; A Maiden’s Grave by J. Deaver; Of Sound Mind by J. Ferris; Deaf Child Crossing by M. Matlin; Apple Is My Sign by M. Riskind; and Finding Abby by V. Scott. For the first part of my study, I analyzed these texts using the Adolescent Literature Content Analysis Check-off Form (ALCAC) which includes both pathological and cultural perspective statements derived from Deaf Studies, Disability Studies and Queer Theory. The participant sample included adult readers who fit within three categories: those who identified as deaf, those who were familiar with or had been acquaintances with deaf individuals, and those who were unfamiliar having never associated with deaf individuals. Each participant completed a Reader-Response Survey which included ten main questions derived from Deaf Studies and Schwartz’ ‘Criteria for Analyzing Books about Deafness’. The survey included both dichotomous and open-ended questions. Research Questions & Methodology Are deaf characters being presented as culturally Deaf or as pathologically deaf and disabled? In previous articles, scholars have stated that most books with deaf characters include a pathological perspective; yet, few studies actually exist to conclude this assertion. In my study, I analyzed six books to determine whether they supported the cultural or the pathological perspective of deafness. The goal was not to exclusively label a text either/or but to highlight the distinct perspectives to illuminate a discussion regarding a deaf character. As before mentioned, the ALCAC instrument incorporates relevant theories and prior research findings in reference to the portrayals of deaf characters and was developed to specifically analyze adolescent literature with deaf characters. Despite the historical research regarding deaf characters and due to the increased awareness of deaf people and American Sign Language, my initial assumption was that the authors of the six adolescent books would present their deaf characters as more culturally ‘Deaf’. This was confirmed for the majority of the books. I believed that an outsider, such as a hearing writer, could carry out an adequate portrayal of a culture other than his own. In the past, scholars did not believe this was the case; however, the results from my study demonstrated that the majority of the hearing authors presented the cultural perspective model. Initially shocking, the majority of deaf authors incorporated the pathological perspective model. I offer three possible reasons why these deaf authors included more pathological perspective statements while the hearing authors include more cultural perspective statements: First, the deaf authors have grown up deaf and perhaps experienced more scenarios similar to those presented from the pathological perspective model. Even if the deaf authors live more culturally Deaf lifestyles today, authors include their experiences growing up in their writing. Second, there are less deaf characters in the books written by deaf authors and more characters and more character variety in the books written by the hearing authors. When there are fewer deaf characters interacting with other deaf characters, these characters tend to interact with more hearing characters who are less likely to be aware of the cultural perspective. And third, with decreased populations of culturally Deaf born to culturally Deaf individuals, it seems consistent that it may be more difficult to obtain a book from a Deaf of Deaf author. Similarly, if we consider the Deaf person’s first language is American Sign Language, Deaf authors may be spending more time composing stories and poetry in American Sign Language and less time focusing upon English. This possible lack of interest may make the number of ‘Deaf of Deaf’ authors, or culturally Deaf individuals raised by culturally Deaf parents, who pursue and are successful publishing a book in adolescent literature low. At least in adolescent literature, deaf characters, as many other minority group characters, are being included in texts to show young people our increasingly multicultural world. Adolescent literature readers can now become aware of a range of deaf characters, including characters who use American Sign Language, who attend residential schools for the Deaf, and even who have Deaf families. Do the readers favor deaf authors over hearing ones? A significant part of my research was based upon the perceptions of adult readers of adolescent literature with deaf characters. I selected participants from a criterion sampling and divided them into three groups: 1. Adults who had attended either a special program for the deaf or a residential school for the deaf, used American Sign Language, and identified themselves as deaf were considered for the deaf category of the study; 2. Adults who were friends, family members, co-workers or professionals in fields connected with individuals who identify themselves as deaf were considered for the familiar category of the study; and, 3. hearing adults who were not aware of the everyday experiences of deaf people and who had not taken a sign language class, worked with or lived with a deaf person were considered for the unfamiliar category of the study. Nine participants were selected for each group totaling 27 participants (one participant from each of the groups withdrew before completion, leaving eight participants from each of the groups to complete the study). To elicit the perspectives of the participants, I developed a Reader Response survey which was modeled after Schwartz’s ‘Criteria for Analyzing Books about Deafness’. I assumed that the participants from Deaf and Familiar groups would prefer the books written by the deaf authors while the unfamiliar participants would act more as a control group. This was not confirmed through the data. In fact, the Deaf participants along with the participants as a whole preferred the books written by the hearing authors as better describing their perceptions of realistic deaf people, for presenting deaf characters adequately and realistically, and for the hearing authors’ portrayals of deaf characters matching with their perceptions of deaf people. In general, the Deaf participants were more critical of the deaf authors while the familiar participants, although as a group preferred the books by the hearing authors, were more critical of the hearing authors. Participants throughout all three groups mentioned their preference for a spectrum of deaf characters. The books used in this study that were written by hearing authors included a variety of characters. For example, Riskind’s Apple Is My Sign includes numerous deaf students at a school for the deaf and the main character living within a deaf family; Deaver’s A Maiden’s Grave includes deaf characters from a variety of backgrounds attending a residential school for the deaf and only a few hearing characters; and Ferris’ Of Sound Mind includes two deaf families with two CODA or hearing teens. The books written by the deaf authors in this study include only a few deaf characters. For example, Matlin’s Deaf Child Crossing includes two deaf girls surrounded by hearing characters; Scott’s Finding Abby includes more minor deaf characters but readers learn about these characters from the hearing character’s perspective. For instance, the character Jared uses sign language and attends a residential school for the deaf but readers learn this information from his hearing mother talking about him, not from the deaf character’s words. Readers know that he communicates through sign language because we are told that he does; however, the only communication readers are shown is a wave from the child; and, Blatchford’s Nick’s Secret includes only one deaf character. With the fewer deaf characters it is nearly impossible for the various ways of being deaf to be included in the book. Thus, the preference for the books by the hearing authors is more likely connected to the preference for a variety of deaf people represented. How do readers perceive deaf characters? Participants commented on fourteen main and secondary characters. Their perceptions of these characters fall into six categories: the “normal” curious kid such as the characters Harry (Apple Is My Sign), Jeremy (Of Sound Mind) and Jared (Finding Abby); the egocentric spoiled brat such as Palma (Of Sound Mind) and Megan (Deaf Child Crossing); the advocate such as Harry’s mother (Apple Is My Sign) and Susan (A Maiden’s Grave); those dependent upon the majority culture such as Palma (Of Sound Mind) and Lizzie (Deaf Child Crossing); those isolated such as Melissa (Finding Abby), Ben (Of Sound Mind), Nick (Nick’s Secret) and Thomas (Of Sound Mind); and, those searching for their identities such as Melanie (A Maiden’s Grave) and Abby (Finding Abby). Overall, participants commented more frequently about the deaf characters in the books by the hearing authors (A Maiden’s Grave; Of Sound Mind; Apple Is My Sign) and made more positive comments about the culturally Deaf male characters, particularly Ben Roper, Jeremy and Thomas of Of Sound Mind, and Harry of Apple Is My Sign. Themes such as the characters being dependent and isolated from others did arise. For example, Palma in Of Sound Mind insists that her hearing son act as her personal interpreter so that she can avoid other hearing people. Examples to demonstrate the isolation some of the deaf characters experience include Nick of Nick’s Secret being the only deaf character in his story and Ben Roper of Of Sound Mind being the only deaf employee in his workplace. While these can certainly be read as negative situations the characters experience, isolation is a reality that resonates in some deaf people’s experiences. With communicative technology and more individuals fluent in American Sign Language, some deaf individuals may decide to associate more with individuals in the larger culture. One must interpret purposeful isolation such as Ben Roper’s (Of Sound Mind) case, working in a location that provides him with the best employment opportunities, differently than Melissa Black’s (Finding Abby) isolating feelings of being left out of family dinner discussions. Similarly, variations in characterization including the egocentric, spoiled brat and those searching for their identities are common themes in adolescent literature with or without deaf characters being included. Positive examples of deaf characters including the roles of the advocate such as Susan (A Maiden’s Grave) and Harry’s mother (Apple Is My Sign), along with descriptions of regular everyday deaf kids increases the varieties of deaf characters. As previously stated, my study included an analysis based on literary theory and prior research. At that time, unless the author explicitly told readers in a foreword or a letter to readers, I had no way of truly knowing why the deaf character was included and why the author made such decisions. This uncertainty of the author’s decisions changed for me in 2007 with the establishment of my educational blog. Beginning to Blog When I started my educational blog Deaf Characters in Adolescent Literature in February 2007, I did not plan to become a blogger nor did I have any plans for my blog. I simply opened a Blogger account and added a list of 106 books with deaf characters that was connected to my research. Once I started blogging on a regular basis, I discovered an active audience who not only read what I wrote but who truly cared about my research. Blogging had become a way for me to keep my research current; since my blog was about deaf characters in adolescent literature, it became an advocacy tool that called attention to authors and books that were not widely publicized; and, it enabled me to become part of a cyber community made up of other bloggers and readers. After a few months of blogging on a weekly basis, I began to feel a sense of obligation to research and post my findings. While continuing to post to my blog, I have acquired more information about my research topic and even received advance reader copies prior to the books’ publication dates. This enables me to discuss the most current books. It also enables my readers to learn about such books. My blog acts as free advertisem*nt for the publishing companies and authors. I currently have 195 contemporary books with deaf characters and over 36 author and professional interviews. While the most rewarding aspect of blogging is connecting with readers, there have been some major highlights in the process. As I stated, I had no way of knowing why the deaf character was included in the books until I began interviewing the authors. I had hoped that the hearing authors of books with deaf characters would portray their characters realistically but I had not realized the authors’ personal connections to actual deaf people. For instance, Delia Ray, Singing Hands, wrote about a Deaf preacher and his family. Her book was based on her grandfather who was a Deaf preacher and leading pioneer in the Deaf Community. Ray is not the only hearing author who has a personal connection to deaf people. Other examples include: Jean Ferris, Of Sound Mind, who earned a degree in Speech Pathology and Audiology. Ferris’ book includes only two hearing characters, the majority are Deaf. All of her characters are also fluent in American Sign Language; Jodi Cutler Del Dottore, Rally Caps, who includes a deaf character named Luca who uses a cochlear implant. Luca is based on Cutler Del Dottore’s son, Jordan, who also has a cochlear implant; finally, Jacqueline Woodson, Feathers, grew up in a community that included deaf people who did not use sign language. As an adult, she met members of the Deaf Community and began learning American Sign Language herself. Woodson introduces readers to Sean who is attractive, funny, and intelligent. In my study, I noted that all of the deaf characters where not diverse based upon race, ethnicity, and socio-economic status (Pajka-West, "Perceptions"). Sean is the first Deaf American-African character in adolescent literature who uses sign language to communicate. Another main highlight is finding Deaf authors who do not receive the mainstream press that other authors might receive. For example, Ann Clare LeZotte, T4, introduces readers to main character Paula Becker, a thirteen year old deaf girl who uses sign language and lipreading to communicate. Through verse, we learn of Paula’s life in Germany during Hitler’s time as she goes into hiding since individuals with physical and mental disabilities were being executed under the orders of Hitler’s Tiergartenstrasse 4 (T4). One additional highlight is that I learn about insider tips and am then able to share this information with my blog readers. In one instance I began corresponding with Marvel Comic’s David Mack, the creator of Echo, a multilingual, biracial, Deaf comic book character who debuted in Daredevil and later The New Avengers. In comics, it is Marvel who owns the character; while Echo was created for Daredevil by Mack, she later appears in The New Avengers. In March 2008, discussion boards were buzzing since issue #39 would include original creator, Mack, among other artists. To make it less complicated for those who do not follow comics, the issue was about whether or not Echo had become a skrull, an alien who takes over the body of the character. This was frightening news since potentially Echo could become a hearing skrull. I just did not believe that Mack would let that happen. My students and I held numerous discussions about the implications of Marvel’s decisions and finally I sent Mack an email. While he could not reveal the details of the issue, he did assure me that my students and I would be pleased. I’m sure there was a collective sigh from readers once his email was published on the blog. Final Thoughts While there have been pejorative depictions of the deaf in literature, the portrayals of deaf characters in adolescent literature have become much more realistic in the last decade. Authors have personal connections with actual deaf individuals which lend to the descriptions of their deaf characters; they are conducting more detailed research to develop their deaf characters; and, they appear to be much more aware of the Deaf Community than they were in the past. A unique benefit of the genre is that authors of adolescent literature often give the impression of being more available to the readers of their books. Authors often participate in open dialogues with their fans through social networking sites or discussion boards on their own websites. After posting interviews with the authors on my blog, I refer readers to the author’s on site whether it through personal blogs, websites, Facebook or Twitter pages. While hearing authors’ portrayals now include a spectrum of deaf characters, we must encourage Deaf and Hard of Hearing writers to include more deaf characters in their works. Consider again my student Carla and her longing to find books with deaf characters. Deaf characters in fiction act as role models for young adults. A positive portrayal of deaf characters benefits deaf adolescents whether or not they see themselves as biologically deaf or culturally deaf. Only through on-going publishing, more realistic and positive representations of the deaf will occur. References Bailes, C.N. "Mandy: A Critical Look at the Portrayal of a Deaf Character in Children’s Literature." Multicultural Perspectives 4.4 (2002): 3-9. Batson, T. "The Deaf Person in Fiction: From Sainthood to Rorschach Blot." Interracial Books for Children Bulletin 11.1-2 (1980): 16-18. Batson, T., and E. Bergman. Angels and Outcasts: An Anthology of Deaf Characters in Literature. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press (1985). Bergman, E. "Literature, Fictional characters in." In J.V. Van Cleve (ed.), Gallaudet Encyclopedia of Deaf People & Deafness. Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: McGraw Hill, 1987. 172-176. Brittain, I. "An Examination into the Portrayal of Deaf Characters and Deaf Issues in Picture Books for Children." Disability Studies Quarterly 24.1 (Winter 2004). 24 Apr. 2005 < http://www.dsq-sds.org >. Burns, D.J. An Annotated Checklist of Fictional Works Which Contain Deaf Characters. Unpublished master’s thesis. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University,1950. Campbell, P., and J. Wirtenberg. How Books Influence Children: What the Research Shows. Interracial Books for Children Bulletin 11.6 (1980): 3-6. Civiletto, C.L., and B.R. Schirmer. "Literature with Characters Who Are Deaf." The Dragon Lode 19.1 (Fall 2000): 46-49. Guella, B. "Short Stories with Deaf Fictional Characters." American Annals of the Deaf 128.1 (1983): 25-33. Krentz, C. "Exploring the 'Hearing Line': Deafness, Laughter, and Mark Twain." In S. L. Snyder, B. J. Brueggemann, and R. Garland-Thomson, eds., Disability Studies: Enabling the Humanities. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2002. 234-247. Larrick, N. "The All-White World of Children's Books. Saturday Review 11 (1965): 63-85. Pajka-West, S. “The Perceptions of Deaf Characters in Adolescent Literature”. The ALAN Review 34.3 (Summer 2007): 39-45. ———. "The Portrayals and Perceptions of Deaf Characters in Adolescent Literature." Ph.D. dissertation. University of Virginia, 2007. ———. "Interview with Deaf Author Ann Clare LeZotte about T4, Her Forthcoming Book Told in Verse." Deaf Characters in Adolescent Literature, 5 Aug. 2008. < http://pajka.blogspot.com/ 2008/08/interview-with-deaf-author-ann-clare.html >.———. "Interview with Delia Ray, Author of Singing Hands." Deaf Characters in Adolescent Literature, 23 Aug. 2007. < http://pajka.blogspot.com/ 2007/08/interview-with-delia-ray-author-of.html >.———. "Interview with Jacqueline Woodson, author of Feathers." Deaf Characters in Adolescent Literature, 29 Sep. 2007. < http://pajka.blogspot.com/ 2007/09/interview-with-jacqueline-woodson.html >. ———. "Interview with Jodi Cutler Del Dottore, author of Rally Caps." Deaf Characters in Adolescent Literature, 13 Aug. 2007. < http://pajka.blogspot.com/ 2007/08/interview-with-jodi-cutler-del-dottore.html >. Panara, R. "Deaf Characters in Fiction and Drama." The Deaf American 24.5 (1972): 3-8. Schwartz, A.V. "Books Mirror Society: A Study of Children’s Materials." Interracial Books for Children Bulletin 11.1-2 (1980): 19-24. Sherriff, A. The Portrayal of Mexican American Females in Realistic Picture Books (1998-2004). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: 2005. Taxel, J. "The Black Experience in Children's Fiction: Controversies Surrounding Award Winning Books." Curriculum Inquiry 16 (1986): 245-281. Taylor, G.M. "Deaf Characters in Short Stories: A Selective Bibliography. The Deaf American 26.9 (1974): 6-8. ———. "Deaf Characters in Short Stories: A Selective Bibliography II." The Deaf American 28.11 (1976): 13-16.———. "Deaf Characters in Short Stories: A Selective Bibliography III." The Deaf American 29.2 (1976): 27-28. Wilding-Diaz, M.M. Deaf Characters in Children’s Books: How Are They Portrayed? Unpublished master’s thesis. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, 1993.———. "Deaf Characters in Children’s Books: How Are They Perceived?" In Gallaudet University College for Continuing Education and B.D. Snider (eds.), Journal: Post Milan ASL & English Literacy: Issues, Trends & Research Conference Proceedings, 20-22 Oct. 1993.Adolescent Fiction Books Blatchford, C. Nick’s Secret. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 2000. Deaver, J. A Maiden’s Grave. New York: Signet, 1996. Ferris, J. Of Sound Mind. New York: Sunburst, 2004. Matlin, M. Deaf Child Crossing. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 2004. Riskind, M. Apple Is My Sign. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1981. Scott, V. Finding Abby. Hillsboro, OR: Butte, 2000.

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McQuigg, Karen. "Becoming Deaf." M/C Journal 13, no.3 (June30, 2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.5204/mcj.263.

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It seems clear that people who are deaf ... struggle continually against the meanings that others impose on their experience, and the way that this separates them from others. They struggle for acknowledgement of the way they see their lives and wish to live them, and aspire to connection?with other people, to share and belong. (David Moorhead. Knowing Who I Am. 1995. 85.) Nga Tapuwae and Before I am deaf but, before that part of my life started, I was hearing and worked for many years as a librarian in New Zealand. My first job was in a public library located within a secondary school Nga Tapuwae Secondary College in South Auckland. Its placement was a 1970’s social experiment to see if a public library could work within the grounds of a community college (and the answer was no, it could not). The experience was a great introduction for me to the Maori and Polynesian cultures that I had not previously encountered. Until then, I was wary of both groups, and so it was a revelation to realise that although there were many social problems in the area including low literacy, many of the children and teenagers were bright, talented individuals. They simply did not connect to the Anglo-Saxon reading materials we offered. Years later, my interest in the social dynamics of literacy led to my enrolment in a post-graduate literacy degree in Melbourne. This action may have saved my life because at the end of this course, a minor ailment resulted in a visit to the university doctor who diagnosed me with the life-threatening medical condition, Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF 2). NF2 is a late onset genetic condition in which one’s body grows tumours, always on both hearing nerves, sometimes elsewhere as well. The tumours usually cause deafness and can cause death. I was told I needed to have my tumours removed and would probably become fully deaf as a result. This is how my life as I knew it changed direction and I started the long journey towards becoming deaf. Diagnosis and Change Predictably, once diagnosed, friends and colleagues rallied to comfort me. I was told things probably weren’t as bad as they sounded. Helen Keller was mentioned several times as an example of someone who had succeeded despite being deaf and blind. ‘Really,’ my friends asked, ‘how bad can it be? ‘Inside myself however, it couldn’t have been worse. A day later the enormity of it all hit me and I became inconsolable. A friend drove me back to the doctor and she did two things that were to change my life. She referred me to the University’s counselling services where, happily, I was counselled by Elizabeth Hastings who later went on to become Australia’s first Disability Services Commissioner. Secondly, the doctor organised for me to visit the HEAR Service at the Victorian Deaf Society (VDS). Again by happy accident, my friend and I stumbled into the ‘wrong building’ where I ended up meeting John Lovett, who was Deaf and the CEO there, via an interpreter. When I met John Lovett I was distraught but, unlike other people, he made no attempt to stop me crying. He simply listened carefully until I realised he understood what I was saying and stopped crying myself. He said my fears that I could end up alone and lonely were valid and he suggested the best thing I could do for myself was to join the ‘Deaf community’; a community. I had never heard of. He explained it was made up of people like him who used Australian sign language (Auslan) to communicate. He was so engaging and supportive that this plan sounded fine to me. By the time we finished talking and he walked me over to the HEAR Service, I was so in his thrall that I had enrolled for a Deaf awareness workshop, an Auslan class, and had plans to join the Deaf community. Had I stayed on and learned Auslan, my life may well have followed a different path, but this was not to be at that time. Becoming Hearing Impaired (HI) Across at the HEAR service, an alternate view of my potential future was put to me. Instead of moving away from everything familiar and joining the Deaf community, I could learn to lip-read and hopefully use it to stay in the workforce and amongst my hearing friends. I had a cousin and aunt who were late deafened; my cousin in particular was doing well communicating with lip-reading. I discussed this with friends and the idea of staying with the people I already knew sounded far less confronting than joining the Deaf community and so I chose this path. My surgeon was also optimistic. He was confident he could save some of my hearing. Suddenly learning Auslan seemed superfluous. I phoned John Lovett to explain, and his response was that I should do what suited me, but he asked me to remember one thing: that it was me who decided to leave the Deaf Community, not that the Deaf community had not wanted me. He told me that, if I changed my mind, I could always go back because the door to the Deaf community would always be open and he would be still be there. It would be a decade before I decided that I wanted to go back through that door, and around that time this great man passed away, but I never forgot my promise to remember our conversation. It, and a few other exchanges I had with him in the following years, stayed at the back of my mind, especially as my residual hearing sank over the years, and the prospect of total deafness hung over me. When I had the surgery, my surgeon’s optimism proved unfounded. He could not save any hearing on my left side and my facial and balance nerves were damaged as well. The hospital then decided not to operate again, and would only attempt to remove the second tumour if it grew and threatened my health again. Consequently, for close to a decade, my life was on hold in many ways. I feared deafness—for me it signalled that my life as I knew it would end and I would be isolated. Every hearing test was a tense time for me as I watched my remaining hearing decline in a slow, relentless downward path on the graph. It was like watching the tide go out knowing it was never going to come in as fully again. My thinking started to change too. Within a week of my diagnosis I experienced discrimination for the first time. A library school that had offered me a place in its post graduate librarianship course the following year made it clear that they no longer wanted me. In the end it did not matter as I was accepted at another institution but it was my first experience of being treated less favourably in the community and it was a shock. After the surgery my life settled down again. I found work in public libraries again, rekindled an old relationship and in 1994 had a baby boy. However, living with a hearing loss is hard work. Everything seemed tiring, especially lip-reading. My ears rejected my hearing aid and became itchy and inflamed. I became aware that my continual hearing problems were sometimes seen as a nuisance in work situations. Socialising lost a lot of its appeal so my social world also contracted. Around this time something else started happening. Outside work, people started expressing admiration for me—words like ‘role model’ and ‘inspiring’ started entering the conversation. Any other time I might have enjoyed it but for me, struggling to adapt to my new situation, it felt odd. The whole thing reminded me of being encouraged to be like Helen Keller; as if there is a right way to behave when one is deaf in which you are an inspiration, and a wrong way in which one is seen as being in need of a role model. I discussed this with Elizabeth Hastings who had helped me prepare mentally for the surgery and afterwards. I explained I felt vulnerable and needy in my new situation and she gave me some useful advice. She thought feeling needy was a good thing as realising one needs people keeps one humble. She observed that, after years of intellectualising, educated people sometimes started believing they could use intellectualisation as a way to avoid painful emotions such as sadness. This behaviour then cut them off from support and from understanding that none of us can do it alone. She believed that, in always having to ask for help, people with disabilities are kept aware of the simple truth that all people depend on others to survive. She said I could regard becoming deaf as a disability, or I could choose to regard it as a privilege. Over the years the truth of her words became increasingly more evident to me as I waded through all the jargon and intellectualisation that surrounds discussion of both deafness and the disability arena, compared to the often raw emotion expressed by those on the receiving end of it. At a personal level I have found that talking about emotions helps especially in the face of the ubiquitous ‘positive thinking’ brigade who would have us all believe that successful people do not feel negative emotions regardless of what is happening. The Lie Elizabeth had initially sympathised with my sadness about my impending deafness. One day however she asked why, having expressed positive sentiments both about deaf people and people with disabilities, I was saying I would probably be better off dead than deaf? Up until that conversation I was unaware of the contradictions between what I felt and what I was saying. I came to realise I was living a lie because I did not believe what I was telling myself; namely, that deaf people and people with disabilities are as good as other people. Far from believing this, what I really thought was that being deaf, or having a disability, did lessen one’s worth. It was an uncomfortable admission, particularly sharing it with someone sitting in a wheelchair, and especially as up until then I had always seen myself as a liberal thinker. Now, faced with the reality of becoming deaf, I had been hoist by my own petard, as I could not come to terms with the idea of myself as a deaf person. The Christian idea of looking after the ‘less fortunate’ was one I had been exposed to, but I had not realised the flip side of it, which is that the ‘less fortunate’ are also perceived as a ‘burden’ for those looking after them. It reminded me of my initial experiences years earlier at Nga Tapuwae when I came face to face with cultures I thought I had understood but did not. In both cases it was only when I got to know people that I began to question my own attitudes and assumptions and broadened my thinking. Unfortunately for deaf people, and people with disabilities, I have not been the only person lying to myself. These days it is not common for people to express their fears about deaf people or people with disabilities. People just press on without fully communicating or understanding the other person’s attitude or perspectives. When things then do not work out, these failures reinforce the misconceptions and these attitudes persist. I believe it is one of the main reasons why true community inclusion for deaf and people with disabilities is moving so slowly. Paying for access is another manifestation of this. Everyone is supportive of access in principle but there is continuous complaint about paying for things such as interpreting. The never-ending discussions between deaf people and the wealthy movie industry about providing more than token access to captioned cinema demonstrate that the inclusion lie is alive and well. Until it can be effectively addressed through genuine dialogue, deaf people, hard of hearing people and people with disabilities will always be largely relegated to life outside the mainstream. Collectively we will also continue to have to endure this double message that we are of equal value to the community while simultaneously being considered a financial burden if we try to access it in ways that are meaningful to us. Becoming Deaf In 2002 however all this thinking still lay ahead of me. I still had some hearing and was back living in New Zealand to be close to my family. My relationship had ended and I was a solo mother. My workplace had approved leave of absence, and so I still had my job to go back to in Melbourne if I wanted it. However, I suspected that I would soon need the second tumour removed because I was getting shooting pains down my face. When my fears were confirmed I could not decide whether to move back to Melbourne or let the job go, and risk having trouble finding one if I went back later. I initially chose to stay longer as my father was sick but eventually I decided Melbourne was where I wanted to be especially if I was deaf. I returned, found temporary employment, and right up to the second surgery I was able to work as I could make good use of the small amount of hearing I still had. I thought that I would still be able to cope when I was made fully deaf as a result of the surgery. It was, after all, only one notch down on the audiogram and I was already ‘profoundly deaf’ and still working. When I woke up after the surgery completely deaf, it felt anti-climactic. The world seemed exactly the same, just silent. At home where I was surrounded by my close family and friends everything initially seemed possible. However, when my family left, it was just my seven-year-old son and myself again, and on venturing back into the community, it quickly became clear to me that at some level my status had changed. Without any cues, I struggled to follow speech and few people wanted to write things down. Although my son was only seven, people communicated with him in preference to me. I felt as if we had changed roles: I was now the child and he was the adult. Worse was soon to follow when I tried to re-enter the workforce. When I had the surgery, the hospital had installed a gadget called an auditory brainstem implant, (ABI) which they said would help me hear. An ABI is similar to a cochlear implant but it is attached to the brainstem instead of the cochlear nerve. My cochlear nerve was removed. I hoped my ABI would enable me to hear enough to find work but, aside from clinical conditions in which there was no background noise and the staff knew how to assist, it did not work. My most humiliating moment with it came when it broke down mid job interview and I spent half the time left trying to get it going again in full view of the embarrassed interview panel, and the other half trying to maintain my composure whilst trying to lip-read the questions. The most crushing blow came from the library where I had happily worked for seven years at middle management level. This library was collaborating with another institution to set up a new library and they needed new staff. I hopefully applied for a job at the same level I had worked at prior to becoming deaf but was unsuccessful. When I asked for feedback, I was told that I was not seen as having the skills to work at that level. My lowest point came when I was refused a job unpacking boxes of books. I was told I did not have experience in this area even though, as any librarian will attest, unpacking boxes is part of any librarian’s work. When I could not find unskilled work, it occurred to me that possibly I would never work again. While this was unfolding, my young son and I went from being comfortable financially to impoverished. My ex-partner also decided he would now make childcare arrangements directly with my son as he was annoyed at being expected to write things down for me. My relationship with him, some family members, and my friends were all under strain at that time. I was lost. It also became clear that my son was not coping. Although he knew the rudiments of Auslan, it was not enough for us to communicate sufficiently. His behaviour at school deteriorated and one night he became so frustrated trying to talk to me that he started to pull out his own hair. I calmed him and asked him to write down for me what he was feeling and he wrote down ‘It is like you died. It is like I don’t have a Mum now’. It was now clear to me that although I still had my friends, nobody including myself knew what to do. I realised I had to find someone who could understand my situation and I knew now it had to be a Deaf person. Fortunately, by this stage I was back learning Auslan again at La Trobe University. The week after the conversation with my son, I told my Auslan teacher what had happened. To my relief she understood my situation immediately. She told me to bring my son to class, at no cost, and she would teach him herself. I did and my life started to turn around. My son took to Auslan with such speed and application that he was able to not only converse with her in one month but immediately started using Auslan with me at home to get the things he wanted. We were able to re-establish the mother/son relationship that we both needed. I was also able to help my son talk through and deal with all the changes that me becoming deaf had foisted upon him. He still uses Auslan to talk to me and supplements it using speech, copious finger spelling, notes and diagrams. More than anything else, this relationship has kept me anchored to my long-term goal of becoming a clear signer. Encouraged by my son’s success, I put all my energy into learning Auslan and enrolled in a full time TAFE Auslan course. I also joined a chat group called ‘Here to Hear’ (H2H). The perspectives in the group ranged from strongly oral to strongly Deaf but for me, trying to find a place to fit in any of it, it was invaluable. Almost daily I chatted with the group, asking questions and invariably someone responded. The group acted as a safety net and sounding board for me as I worked out the practicalities of living life deaf. The day of my fateful interview and the ABI humiliation, I came home so shaken that I used the Irish remedy of a couple of swigs of whisky, and then went online and posted an account of it all. I can still remember the collective indignation of the group and, as I read the responses, beginning to see the funny side of it . . . something I could not have done alone. I also made use of easy access to Deaf teachers at TAFE and used that to listen to them and ask advice on situations. I found out for example, that if I instructed my son to stand behind me when people in shops insisted on addressing him, they had no alternative but to talk to me; it was a good clear message to all concerned that my son was the child in this relationship. About this time, I discovered the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) that Elizabeth Hastings had worked so hard on, filed my first DDA complaint, and received my first apology at the mediation session that followed. My personal life also improved, relationship by relationship as everyone adjusted. Slowly the ice melted in most of my relationships; some relationships faded and were replaced with new ones with signing people, and eventually hearing people again. My life moved forward. Through a member of ‘Here to Hear’, I was invited to apply for my first post deaf job—covering holiday leave at a Deaf sports organisation. I practically finger-spelt my way through the interview but not only did they offer me the job, they were delighted to have me. I was able to buy a few things with the money I earned, and suddenly it felt as if everything was possible again. This acceptance of me by Deaf people had a profound impact on me. I mixed with people more, and it was not too long before I was able to use my basic signing skills to use Auslan interpreters and re-enter the workplace. I have discovered over time that living in silence also has advantages—no more noisy parties or rubbish trucks clanging at dawn and in its place a vastly heightened visual awareness that I enjoy. Before I was deaf I thought it would be lonely in the silence but in fact many of life’s best moments—watching rain hit and then run down a window, swimming in the sea, cooking and being with good friends—do not rely upon sound at all; they feel the same way they always did. Sometimes I have felt somewhat of an outsider in the Deaf community. I have sometimes been taken aback by people’s abruptness but I have learned over time that being succinct is valued in Auslan, and some people like to come straight to the point. At crisis points, such as when I asked for help at the Victorian Deaf Society and my Auslan class, it has been a huge relief to talk to Deaf people and know immediately that they understand just from reading their eyes. Having access to an additional world of deaf people has made my life more enjoyable. I feel privileged to be associated with the Deaf community. I can recall a couple of Christmases ago making dinner for some signing friends and suddenly realising that, without noticing, everything had become alright in my world again. Everyone was signing really fast – something I still struggle with; but every now and then someone would stop and summarise so I felt included. It was really relaxed and simply felt like old times, just old times without the sound thrown in. Le Page and Tabouret-Keller, two ethnographers, have this to say about why people communicate the ways they do: The individual ... creates for himself the patterns of his linguistic behaviour so as to resemble those of the group or groups with which from time to time he wishes to be identified, or so as to be unlike those from whom he wishes to be distinguished ... . We see speech acts as acts of projection; the speaker is projecting his inner universe, implicitly with the invitation to others to share it ... he is seeking to reinforce his models of the world, and hopes for solidarity from those with whom he wishes to identify. (181) This quote neatly sums up why I choose to communicate the ways I do. I use Auslan and speech in different situations because I am connected to people in both groups and I want them in my life. I do not feel hugely different from anyone these days. If it is accepted that I have as much to contribute to the community as anyone else, becoming deaf has also meant for me that I expect to see other people treated well and accepted. For me that means contributing my time and thoughts, and advocating. It also means expecting a good level of access to interpreters, to some thought provoking captioned movies in English, and affordable assistive technologies so I can participate. I see this right to participate and engage in genuine dialogue with the rest of the community as central to the aspirations and identity of us all, regardless of who we are or where others think we belong. References Le Page, R.B., and Andree Tabouret-Keller. Acts of Identity: Creole-Based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. London: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Moorhead, D. “Knowing Who I Am.” In S. Gregory, ed., Deaf Futures Revisited. Block 3, Unit 10, D251 Issues in Deafness. Open University, 1995.

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